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Sökning: WFRF:(Brandmaier Andreas M.) > (2019)

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1.
  • Karalija, Nina, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular factors are related to dopamine integrity and cognition in aging
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2328-9503. ; 6:11, s. 2291-2303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aging brain undergoes several changes, including reduced vascular, structural, and dopamine (DA) system integrity. Such brain changes have been associated with age‐related cognitive deficits. However, their relative importance, interrelations, and links to risk factors remain elusive.Methods: The present work used magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with 11C‐raclopride to jointly examine vascular parameters (white‐matter lesions and perfusion), DA D2‐receptor availability, brain structure, and cognitive performance in healthy older adults (n = 181, age: 64–68 years) from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study.Results: Covariance was found among several brain indicators, where top predictors of cognitive performance included caudate and hippocampal integrity (D2DR availability and volumes), and cortical blood flow and regional volumes. White‐matter lesion burden was negatively correlated with caudate DA D2‐receptor availability and white‐matter microstructure. Compared to individuals with smaller lesions, individuals with confluent lesions (exceeding 20 mm in diameter) had reductions in cortical and hippocampal perfusion, striatal and hippocampal D2‐receptor availability, white‐matter microstructure, and reduced performance on tests of episodic memory, sequence learning, and processing speed. Higher cardiovascular risk as assessed by treatment for hypertension, systolic blood pressure, overweight, and smoking was associated with lower frontal cortical perfusion, lower putaminal D2DR availability, smaller grey‐matter volumes, a larger number of white‐matter lesions, and lower episodic memory performance.Interpretation: Taken together, these findings suggest that reduced cardiovascular health is associated with poorer status for brain variables that are central to age‐sensitive cognitive functions, with emphasis on DA integrity.
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2.
  • Karch, Julian D, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying predictors of within-person variance in MRI-based brain volume estimates
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1095-9572. ; 200, s. 575-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adequate reliability of measurement is a precondition for investigating individual differences and age-related changes in brain structure. One approach to improve reliability is to identify and control for variables that are predictive of within-person variance. To this end, we applied both classical statistical methods and machine-learning-inspired approaches to structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data of six participants aged 24-31 years gathered at 40-50 occasions distributed over 6-8 months from the Day2day study. We explored the within-person associations between 21 variables covering physiological, affective, social, and environmental factors and global measures of brain volume estimated by VBM8 and FreeSurfer. Time since the first scan was reliably associated with Freesurfer estimates of grey matter volume and total cortex volume, in line with a rate of annual brain volume shrinkage of about 1 percent. For the same two structural measures, time of day also emerged as a reliable predictor with an estimated diurnal volume decrease of, again, about 1 percent. Furthermore, we found weak predictive evidence for the number of steps taken on the previous day and testosterone levels. The results suggest a need to control for time-of-day effects in sMRI research. In particular, we recommend that researchers interested in assessing longitudinal change in the context of intervention studies or longitudinal panels make sure that, at each measurement occasion, (a) a given participant is measured at the same time of day; (b) participants overall are measured at about the same time of day. Furthermore, the potential effects of physical activity, including moderate amounts of aerobic exercise, and testosterone levels on MRI-based measures of brain structure deserve further investigation.
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