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  • Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 390:10100, s. 1345-1422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context.METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined.FINDINGS: Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124·1 million DALYs [95% UI 111·2 million to 137·0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122·2 million DALYs [110·3 million to 133·3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83·0 million DALYs [78·3 million to 87·7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89·9 million DALYs [80·9 million to 98·2 million]), high body-mass index (64·8 million DALYs [44·4 million to 87·6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63·8 million DALYs [53·2 million to 76·3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9·3% (6·9-11·6) decline in deaths and a 10·8% (8·3-13·1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14·9% (12·7-17·5) of deaths and 6·2% (3·9-8·7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12·4% (10·1-14·9) of deaths and 12·4% (10·1-14·9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27·3% (24·9-29·7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks.INTERPRETATION: Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade.FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies.
  • Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 390:10100, s. 1084-1150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016.METHODS: We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age-specific and sex-specific death rates for each location-year. Using various international databases, we identified fatal discontinuities, which we defined as increases in the death rate of more than one death per million, resulting from conflict and terrorism, natural disasters, major transport or technological accidents, and a subset of epidemic infectious diseases; these were added to estimates in the relevant years. In 47 countries with an identified peak adult prevalence for HIV/AIDS of more than 0·5% and where VR systems were less than 65% complete, we informed our estimates of age-sex-specific mortality using the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP)-Spectrum model fitted to national HIV/AIDS prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance systems. We estimated stillbirths, early neonatal, late neonatal, and childhood mortality using both survey and VR data in spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression models. We estimated abridged life tables for all location-years using age-specific death rates. We grouped locations into development quintiles based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and analysed mortality trends by quintile. Using spline regression, we estimated the expected mortality rate for each age-sex group as a function of SDI. We identified countries with higher life expectancy than expected by comparing observed life expectancy to anticipated life expectancy on the basis of development status alone.FINDINGS: Completeness in the registration of deaths increased from 28% in 1970 to a peak of 45% in 2013; completeness was lower after 2013 because of lags in reporting. Total deaths in children younger than 5 years decreased from 1970 to 2016, and slower decreases occurred at ages 5-24 years. By contrast, numbers of adult deaths increased in each 5-year age bracket above the age of 25 years. The distribution of annualised rates of change in age-specific mortality rate differed over the period 2000 to 2016 compared with earlier decades: increasing annualised rates of change were less frequent, although rising annualised rates of change still occurred in some locations, particularly for adolescent and younger adult age groups. Rates of stillbirths and under-5 mortality both decreased globally from 1970. Evidence for global convergence of death rates was mixed; although the absolute difference between age-standardised death rates narrowed between countries at the lowest and highest levels of SDI, the ratio of these death rates-a measure of relative inequality-increased slightly. There was a strong shift between 1970 and 2016 toward higher life expectancy, most noticeably at higher levels of SDI. Among countries with populations greater than 1 million in 2016, life expectancy at birth was highest for women in Japan, at 86·9 years (95% UI 86·7-87·2), and for men in Singapore, at 81·3 years (78·8-83·7) in 2016. Male life expectancy was generally lower than female life expectancy between 1970 and 2016, and the gap between male and female life expectancy increased with progression to higher levels of SDI. Some countries with exceptional health performance in 1990 in terms of the difference in observed to expected life expectancy at birth had slower progress on the same measure in 2016.INTERPRETATION: Globally, mortality rates have decreased across all age groups over the past five decades, with the largest improvements occurring among children younger than 5 years. However, at the national level, considerable heterogeneity remains in terms of both level and rate of changes in age-specific mortality; increases in mortality for certain age groups occurred in some locations. We found evidence that the absolute gap between countries in age-specific death rates has declined, although the relative gap for some age-sex groups increased. Countries that now lead in terms of having higher observed life expectancy than that expected on the basis of development alone, or locations that have either increased this advantage or rapidly decreased the deficit from expected levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for H -> gamma gamma produced in association with top quarks and constraints on the Yukawa coupling between the top quark and the Higgs boson using data taken at 7 TeV and 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 740, s. 222-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search is performed for Higgs bosons produced in association with top quarks using the diphoton decay mode of the Higgs boson. Selection requirements are optimized separately for leptonic and fully hadronic final states from the top quark decays. The dataset used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 20.3 fb(-1) at 8 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. No significant excess over the background prediction is observed and upper limits are set on the ttH production cross section. The observed exclusion upper limit at 95% confidence level is 6.7 times the predicted Standard Model cross section value. In addition, limits are set on the strength of the Yukawa coupling between the top quark and the Higgs boson, taking into account the dependence of the ttH and tH cross sections as well as the H -> gamma gamma branching fraction on the Yukawa coupling. Lower and upper limits at 95% confidence level are set at 1.3 and +8.0 times the Yukawa coupling strength in the Standard Model. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • Engineering for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) end-cap
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon-strip tracking detector which forms part of the ATLAS inner detector. The SCT is designed to track charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN at an energy of 14 TeV. The tracker is made up of a central barrel and two identical end-caps. The barrel contains 2112 silicon modules, while each end-cap contains 988 modules. The overall tracking performance depends not only on the intrinsic measurement precision of the modules but also on the characteristics of the whole assembly, in particular, the stability and the total material budget. This paper describes the engineering design and construction of the SCT end-caps, which are required to support mechanically the silicon modules, supply services to them and provide a suitable environment within the inner detector. Critical engineering choices are highlighted and innovative solutions are presented - these will be of interest to other builders of large-scale tracking detectors. The SCT end-caps will be fully connected at the start of 2008. Further commissioning will continue, to be ready for proton-proton collision data in 2008.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS semiconductor tracker end-cap module
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 575:3, s. 353-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3.3 mu s buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is 1.4x10(14) cm(-2) in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area similar to 70 cm(2), each having 2 x 768 strips read out by six ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X-0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500e(-) equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800e(-) ENC after irradiation, provides stringent design constraints on both the high-density Cu/Polyimide flex read-out circuit and the ABCD3TA read-out ASICs. Finally, the accuracy of module assembly must not compromise the 16 mu m (r phi) resolution perpendicular to the strip directions or 580 mu m radial resolution coming from the 40 mrad front-back stereo angle. A total of 2210 modules were built to the tight tolerances and specifications required for the SCT. This was 234 more than the 1976 required and represents a yield of 93%. The component flow was at times tight, but the module production rate of 40-50 per week was maintained despite this. The distributed production was not found to be a major logistical problem and it allowed additional flexibility to take advantage of where the effort was available, including any spare capacity, for building the end-cap modules. The collaboration that produced the ATLAS SCT end-cap modules kept in close contact at all times so that the effects of shortages or stoppages at different sites could be rapidly resolved.
  • Abolins, M., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.
  • Abreu, P, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the gluon fragmentation function and a comparison of the scaling violation in gluon and quark jets
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 13:4, s. 573-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fragmentation functions of quarks and gluons are measured in various three-jet topologies in Z decays from the full data set collected with the DELPHI detector at the Z resonance between 1992 and 995. The results at different values of transverse momentum-like scales are compared. A parameterization of the quark and gluon fragmentation functions at a fixed reference scale is given. The quark and gluon fragmentation functions show the predicted pattern of scaling violations. The scaling violation for quark jets as a function of a transverse momentum-like scale is in a good agreement with that observed in lower energy e+e- annihilation experiments. For gluon jets it appears to be significantly stronger. The scale dependences of the gluon and quark fragmentation functions agree with the prediction of the DGLAP evolution equations from which the colour factor ratio CA/CF is measured to be: CA/CF = 2.26 ± 0.09stat. ± 0.06sys. ± 0.12clus.,scale..
  • Abreu, P, et al. (författare)
  • Study of dimuon production in photon-photon collisions and measurement of QED photon structure functions at LEP
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 19:1, s. 15-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Muon pair production in the process e+e- → e+e- μ+μ- is studied using the data taken at LEP1 (√s ≃ mz) with the DELPHI detector during the years 1992-1995. The corresponding integrated luminosity is 138.5 pb-1. The QED predictions have been tested over the whole Q2 range accessible at LEP1 (from several GeV2/c4 to several hundred GeV2/c4) by comparing experimental distributions with distributions resulting from Monte Carlo simulations using various generators. Selected events are used to extract the leptonic photon structure function Fγ 2. Azimuthal correlations are used to obtain information on additional structure functions, Fγ A and Fγ B, which originate from interference terms of the scattering amplitudes. The measured ratios Fγ A/Fγ 2 and FγB/Fγ 2 are significantly different from zero and consistent with QED predictions.
  • Schael, S, et al. (författare)
  • Electroweak measurements in electron positron collisions at W-boson-pair energies at LEP
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - Elsevier. - 0370-1573. ; 532:4, s. 119-244
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the electron positron collider LEP at CERN from 1995 to 2000 are reported. The combined data set considered in this report corresponds to a total luminosity of about 3 fb(-1) collected by the four LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, 13 and OPAL, at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 130 GeV to 209 GeV. Combining the published results of the four LEP experiments, the measurements include total and differential cross-sections in photon-pair, fermion-pair and four-fermion production, the latter resulting from both double-resonant WW and ZZ production as well as singly resonant production. Total and differential cross-sections are measured precisely, providing a stringent test of the Standard Model at centre-of-mass energies never explored before in electron positron collisions. Final-state interaction effects in four-fermion production, such as those arising from colour reconnection and Bose Einstein correlations between the two W decay systems arising in WW production, are searched for and upper limits on the strength of possible effects are obtained. The data are used to determine fundamental properties of the W boson and the electroweak theory. Among others, the mass and width of the W boson, m(w) and Gamma(w), the branching fraction of W decays to hadrons, B(W -> had), and the trilinear gauge-boson self-couplings g(1)(Z), K-gamma and lambda(gamma), are determined to be: m(w) = 80.376 +/- 0.033 GeV Gamma(w) = 2.195 +/- 0.083 GeV B(W -> had) = 67.41 +/- 0.27% g(1)(Z) = 0.984(-0.020)(+0.018) K-gamma - 0.982 +/- 0.042 lambda(gamma) = 0.022 +/- 0.019. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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