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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Brockstedt Sara) srt2:(1995-1999)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Brockstedt Sara) > (1995-1999)

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1.
  • Brockstedt, Sara (författare)
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Diffusion Imaging Development and evaluation of spin-echo-based pulse sequences for in vivo studies of water self-diffusion
  • 1998
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The interest in diffusion imaging with nuclear magnetic resonance techniques has increased during the last few years. The main reason is the possibility of early diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke, at a time when conventional MR techniques and computerised tomography fail. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement of water self-diffusion <i>in vivo</i> using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The main objective was to design pulse sequences that allow quantification of the diffusion coefficient, and provide diffusion-weighted (DW) images of high quality. DW-MRI is highly sensitive to macroscopic motion, which causes severe image artifacts and makes quantification difficult. This problem was addressed through pulse sequence design and image post-processing techniques. The use of first-order motion-compensating diffusion-encoding gradients in combination with DW spin-echo (SE) imaging proved to increase image quality and accuracy in quantitative data. Further more, quantitative diffusion imaging was found to be possible with fast-SEs, a method that does not require any high-performance gradient systems. Using a segmented echo-planar imaging (SEPI) technique high-resolution DW-images and ADC maps were obtained, showing no proof of susceptibility artifacts or geometrical distortions, problems normally associated with EPI. Navigator-echo phase-corrections were found to reduce motion artifacts present in images obtained with SE, FSE and SEPI techniques. The use of electro-cardiographic triggering for DW-EPI was also evaluated, and found to be relevant in quantitative measurements. Assessment of the perfusion fraction <i>in vivo</i> from DW-images might be helpful in diagnosis and characterisation of acute stroke and can be performed whenever enough data are available. Finally, the performance of DW-SE and DW-EPI for diagnosis of ischaemic stroke in the acute phase was evaluated. DW-EPI and DW-SE in combination with ADC maps were compared with respect to diagnostic accuracy. It was found that although DW-SE methods suffer from limited diffusion sensitivity and limited numbers of slices, it can be used for diagnosis of acute stroke, but ADC maps are essential in discriminating between acute and chronic infarcts.
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2.
  • Brockstedt, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative diffusion coefficient maps using fast spin-echo MRI
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. - Elsevier. - 1873-5894. ; 16:8, s. 877-886
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work, we have evaluated the performance of a diffusion-sensitive fast spin-echo (FSE) pulse sequence. The proposed pulse sequence utilises velocity-compensating diffusion-encoding gradients and includes the collection of navigator echoes. Spoiler gradients were inserted in the slice-selecting direction to minimise effects from stimulated echoes. Calculations of the b values showed that cross-terms between imaging gradients and diffusion gradients only led to a marginal increase of b values. Pixel-wise calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps was performed numerically, considering cross-terms between diffusion-encoding and imaging gradients. The sequences investigated used echo train lengths of 16, 8 and 4 echoes and were encoded in either the slice-, frequency- or phase-encoding direction. In order to allow for higher b values a pulse-sequence version using non-motion compensating diffusion-encoding gradients was written. Phantom measurements were performed and the diffusion coefficients of water and acetone were reasonable. Seven healthy volunteers (age 28-50 years) were examined and apparent diffusion coefficient values agreed well with expected values. Diffusion-weighted images, apparent diffusion coefficient maps and images corresponding to the trace of the diffusion tensor of good quality were retrieved in vivo.
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3.
  • Brockstedt, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Triggering in quantitative diffusion imaging with single-shot EPI
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiologica. - SAGE Publications. - 1600-0455. ; 40:3, s. 263-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate any possible effects of brain motion, CSF pulsations and other possible sources of physiological motion in electrocardiographic (ECG) triggered and non-triggered single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) measurements of diffusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three different triggering protocols were evaluated in 6 healthy volunteers: 1) ECG triggering with time delay (TD) 100 ms; 2) ECG triggering with TD 400 ms; and 3) no triggering at all. RESULTS: The results obtained showed that white matter mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were similar for all triggering protocols and that the reproducibility in ADC measurements using diffusion-weighted (DW) EPI was good. The average standard deviation of the ADC values was, however, higher for ADC maps obtained without ECG triggering. CONCLUSION: The use of prospective diastolic ECG triggering significantly improves the accuracy of quantitative diffusion measurements but for routine clinical diffusion imaging, where quantitative data is of less importance, the accuracy obtained without ECG triggering can be considered adequate.
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4.
  • Brockstedt, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Use of an enhanced gradient system for diffusion MR imaging with motion-artifact reduction
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiologica. - SAGE Publications. - 1600-0455. ; 36:6, s. 662-670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: A spin-echo diffusion-sensitized pulse sequence using high gradients (23 mT/m) is introduced. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to minimize motion artefacts, velocity-compensating gradients, ECG-triggering and post-processing with phase correction and raw data averaging using navigator echoes was performed. The in vitro ratio of diffusion coefficients for water and acetone was determined and the water self-diffusion coefficient at different temperatures was evaluated. The pulse sequence was tested in 7 healthy volunteers and in 2 tumour patients with astrocytomas of grades I-II and III-IV. Both single-slice and multi-slice techniques were used. RESULTS: The incorporation of phase correction clearly improved the quality of both diffusion-encoded images and the calculated diffusion maps. Mean values of the diffusion coefficients in vivo were for CSF 2.66 x 10(-9) m2/s and for white and grey matter 0.69 x 10(-9) m2/s and 0.87 x 10(-9) m2/s, respectively. CONCLUSION: Velocity-compensating gradients in combination with a high gradient strength were shown to be useful for in vivo diffusion MR imaging.
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5.
  • Geijer, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Radiological diagnosis of acute stroke. Comparison of conventional MR imaging, echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging, and spin-echo diffusion-weighted imaging
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiologica. - SAGE Publications. - 1600-0455. ; 40:3, s. 255-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To compare conventional MR imaging, echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (EP-DWI) and spin-echo diffusion-weighted imaging (SE)-DWI at radiological diagnosis of acute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients (30-85 years old) were examined. Clinical examination was performed before MR imaging. All MR examinations were assessed by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to clinical findings. RESULTS: In EP-DWI, every patient had a lesion corresponding to the clinical findings. EP-DWI was used as the gold standard. In conventional PD+T2 imaging, 23/59 focal lesions were interpreted as acute, which was false in 11 lesions, and 36/59 lesions were considered to be old, 6 were in fact acute. Nine acute lesions were only detected retrospectively and 12 acute lesions were not detected at all on PD+T2. SE-DWI including the apparent diffusion coefficient correlated fairly well with EP-DWI but the procedure was impractical. CONCLUSION: EP-DWI is reliable for diagnosis of early ischemic stroke, while SE-DWI performs reasonably well. Conventional PD+T2 imaging is not reliable for diagnosis of early ischemia.
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6.
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7.
  • Malmgren, N, et al. (författare)
  • Postoperative pulmonary vascular supply in congenital heart disease evaluated with MR imaging at 0.3 T
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Acta Pædiatrica. Supplement. - Scandinavian University Press. - 0803-5326. ; 84:410, s. 63-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of static spin-echo MR imaging at low field strength in evaluating postoperative pulmonary arterial supply. Twenty-seven patients operated on for complex congenital heart disease underwent cardiac MR imaging: 27 stenoses in 20 patients and 4 aneurysms were present in the material. Five of the overlooked stenoses were located in the ventricular outflow tract or in the valvular region. All four aneurysms were well depicted. The final diagnosis were based on two-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler and invasive studies. MR correctly evaluated the pulmonary arterial supply in 21 patients. In two cases the evaluation was incomplete and in the remaining four patients MR failed to show the stenoses. MR imaging at 0.3 T is an effective non-invasive tool for postoperative evaluation of pulmonary arteries.
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8.
  • Olsrud, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • MRI thermometry in phantoms by use of the proton resonance frequency shift method: application to interstitial laser thermotherapy
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - IOP Publishing. - 1361-6560. ; 43:9, s. 2597-2613
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency was assessed in agarose gel with a high melting temperature (95 degrees C) and in porcine liver in vitro at temperatures relevant to thermotherapy (25-80 degrees C). Furthermore, an optically tissue-like agarose gel phantom was developed and evaluated for use in MRI. The phantom was used to visualize temperature distributions from a diffusing laser fibre by means of the proton resonance frequency shift method. An approximately linear relationship (0.0085 ppm degrees C(-1)) between proton resonance frequency shift and temperature change was found for agarose gel, whereas deviations from a linear relationship were observed for porcine liver. The optically tissue-like agarose gel allowed reliable MRI temperature monitoring, and the MR relaxation times (T1 and T2) and the optical properties were found to be independently alterable. Temperature distributions around a diffusing laser fibre, during irradiation and subsequent cooling, were assessed with high spatial resolution (voxel size = 4.3 mm3) and with random uncertainties ranging from 0.3 degrees C to 1.4 degrees C (1 SD) with a 40 s scan time.
9.
  • Wirestam, Ronnie, et al. (författare)
  • Quantification of low-velocity motion using a navigator-echo supported MR velocity-mapping technique: application to intracranial dynamics in volunteers and patients with brain tumours
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. - Elsevier. - 1873-5894. ; 15:1, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gradient-echo pulse sequences with velocity-encoding gradients of 22.5-25 mT/m, were used for brain-motion and CSF-flow studies. To reduce motion artifacts, a phase-correction technique based on navigator echoes was evaluated. Three patients with right-sided parietal tumours were investigated; one astrocytoma grade III-IV, one astrocytoma grade I-II and one benign meningioma. In healthy volunteers, a maximal brain-tissue velocity of (0.94 +/- 0.26) mm/s (mean +/- 1SD) was observed, which is consistent with previously presented results. The phase correction was proven useful for reduction of artifacts due to external head movements in modulus and phase images, without loss of phase information related to internal motion. The tissue velocity within the astrocytomas was low during the entire cardiac cycle. An abnormally high rostral velocity component was, however, observed in the brain tissue frontal to the astrocytomas. In all patients, an abnormal CSF flow pattern was observed. The study of brain motion may provide further understanding of the effects of tumours and other pathological conditions in the brain. When considering intracranial motion as a source of error in diffusion/perfusion MRI, the present study suggests that a pathology can alter the properties of brain motion and CSF flow considerably, leading to a more complex impact on diffusion/perfusion images.
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10.
  • Wirestam, Ronnie, et al. (författare)
  • The perfusion fraction in volunteers and in patients with ischaemic stroke
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiologica. - SAGE Publications. - 1600-0455. ; 38:6, s. 961-964
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fractional volume of capillary blood, i.e. the perfusion fraction f, was measured with the aid of an echo-planar imaging protocol originally designed for the measurement of water diffusion. In healthy volunteers, reasonable f values were obtained. In patients with cerebral ischaemic stroke, a marked decrease in the f value was seen in the infarcted region as compared with corresponding values in the contralateral hemisphere. We suggest that perfusion-fraction measurements may add to the diagnostic value of water-mobility examinations in patients with ischaemic disease.
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