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Sökning: WFRF:(Brogaard Sara) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Brogaard, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Scaling up social capital - A prerequisite for community based adaptation in the Lake Victoria basin?
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The capacity of communities to reduce negative impacts of climate change on their lives and livelihoods is a function of socio-economic conditions, infrastructure, government accountability and institutional responsiveness and not the least social capital. Africa’s most densely populated region, the Lake Victoria basin (LVB), home to over 30 million people, is one example of a likely future climate change hotspot where the low inherent adaptive capacity of the rural population can be traced to the combination of low asset stock of natural, physical, financial and human capitals, and institutions poor or even non-existing in responding to high climate vulnerability. This leaves social capital as one key asset to invest in. Based on empirical data from Nyanza, Kenya and Mara, Tanzania, using a multi-stakeholder approach, this paper will examine the importance and possibilities of bridging and linking social capital within and between actors in the LVB to initiate and facilitate community based adaptation.
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2.
  • Gabrielsson, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Living without buffers-illustrating climate vulnerability in the Lake Victoria basin
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Sustainability Science. - : Springer. - 1862-4057. ; 8:2, s. 143-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity are essential, albeit theoretically vague, components of climate vulnerability. This has triggered debate surrounding how these factors can be translated into, and understood in, an empirical context subject to present and future harm. In this article, which draws on extensive fieldwork in the Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya and Tanzania, we illustrate how exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity play out in the context of climate vulnerability and discuss how they interact in situ. Using a mixed methods approach including survey data, rainfall data and a suite of participatory methods, such as focus groups and interactive mapping of seasonal calendars, we identify how climate-induced stressors affect smallholder farmers' well-being and natural resources. Drawing on the seasonal calendar as a heuristic, and climate vulnerability terminology, we illustrate when, where and how these climate-induced stressors converge to constrain farmers' livelihoods. Our analysis indicates that farmers in the basin face a highly uncertain future with discernible, but differentiated, adaptation deficits due to recurring, and potentially worsening, patterns of hardship.
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3.
  • Gabrielsson, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Seasonal pattern of climate vulnerability and adaptation in the Lake Victoria basin – Identifying needs and opportunities using a multi-stakeholder approach. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual Conference, San Diego
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Important factors behind high levels of vulnerability and low adaptive capacity to climate variability and change in the developing world are direct reliance on natural resources, poverty and limited abilities to adapt financially and institutionally. In this study, focusing on the Lake Victoria Basin, a multitude of stressors on livelihoods, including climate related factors, are faced by the rural communities. The aim of the study is to disclose the annual pattern of these combined stressors, under both typical as well as more extreme climate conditions in order to reveal periods of particular hardship as well as recovery in the studied communities in Kenya and Tanzania. Data has primarily been collected through focus group interactions around seasonal calendars during fieldwork in September 2009 and a regional stakeholder meeting planned for January 2010. Key themes of the calendars consisted of climate and health patterns, agricultural and animal husbandry activities, on- and off-farm household incomes as well expenditures. A considerable increase in adaptive capacity was found among those farmers involved in formalized village groups based on their pooling of labor and assets, agro-forestry activities, and the village savings and loans. The planned stakeholder meeting aims at exploring important local to national links that can strengthen existing adaptation and identify new cooperation possibilities.
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4.
  • Andersson, Elina, et al. (författare)
  • The Political Ecology of Land Degradation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annual Review of Environment and Resources. - : Annual Reviews. - 1545-2050. ; 36, s. 295-319
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Land degradation, as a threat to smallholders in the tropics, attracts less attention than other global challenges. In addition, gaps between scientific understandings of land degradation and international policy regimes are problematic. We identify the three most significant debates including their different policy implications: desertification in the Sahel, nutrient depletion in Africa, and rural reforms in China. Using a political ecology frame across disciplines, scales of inquiry, and regional experiences, we nuance the often polarized scientific debate while seeking to bridge the gap between science and policy. Three main findings emerge: State-led rural reforms in China represent an important approach to land degradation; a renewed focus on agriculture and sustainability in development discourses opens new ways for tackling nutrient depletion with combined sociotechnological reforms; and a policy void in Africa paves the way for market mechanisms, such as payment for environmental services, that are insufficiently understood and put fairness at risk.
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5.
  • Brogaard, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Biofuel policy and stakeholder perspectives in Sweden – Initial impacts of EU sustainability criteria on the biofuels sector and implications for land use
  • 2014
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global demand for transportation biofuels has increased significantly stimulated by policy interventions seeking GHG emission reductions, improved security of supply and rural development opportunities. However the impact on an increasing use of biofuels on land use and cover has become a global concern. While policy interventions have led to increased use of biofuels, certification is often regarded as an institutional arrangement that can counter negative externalities. In the European Union sustainability criteria have been imposed on biofuels in order to qualify for government support and count towards national renewable energy targets set in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). Biofuels, locally produced or imported, have to comply with criteria that as a minimum avoids the use of high biodiversity, high carbon stock land for feedstock production and reaches set levels of greenhouse gas emission reductions. Voluntary certification schemes in addition often also include social criteria such as land and resource rights, food security perspectives and labor rights.In Sweden, one of the first countries to transpose the RED sustainability criteria into national law, a majority of the economic actors have opted for the national scheme supervised and regulated by the Swedish Energy Authority. More than one year passing since the first annual reporting of sustainability data, the aim of this paper is to analyse effects of this public-private governance initiative, emphasizing on perspectives provided by economic actors active on the Swedish biofuel arena. Acknowledging the importance of interlinking science and technology for sustainability with the perspectives of key actors, research design and analysis for this paper rests on three information attributes; salience, credibility and legitimacy (Cash et al 2002). A questionnaire submitted to all economic actors required to report sustainability data in order to receive tax exemptions was used to inquire about aspects such as: a) views on existing and further development of sustainability criteria including stakeholder participation b) methods and costs of compliance c) broader range of mechanisms affecting the biofuel market d) future investment strategies in a sustainability context. Alongside providing recent experiences of sustainability criteria implementation in Sweden, we discuss potential effects of suggested amendments of the EU RED encouraging greater market penetration of advanced biofuels and on inclusions of ILUC factors for biofuels.The study aims at contributing to the important question on if and how public-private policy mechanisms embedded in the EU RED can promote sustainable biofuels and land use practices in a Swedish as well as in a global perspective.
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6.
  • Brogaard, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Governance of biofuel production in the transport sector through the renewable energy directive
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the search for viable pathways for transforming governance and institutions in the Rio+20 agenda, strengthening of public-private governance networks has been emphasized. Important initiatives are found in the expanding bioenergy sector where several certification schemes have been launched for ensuring that bioenergy feedstock meet environmental and social requirements. These initiatives are encouraged by the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED). RED states that biofuels should replace 10% of Europe's fossil fuel in transport by 2020. However, the production of bioliquids raises serious environmental and social sustainability concerns in producer countries. In order to contribute to the EU targets, economic operators most comply with a set of sustainability criteria through one of three reporting schemes. This study, emphasizing the Swedish case as one of the first countries to transpose RED into national law, focuses on which reporting system is chosen by economic operators and on what grounds. Are social concerns such as labor rights, land and resource rights considered important factors? Preliminary studies show that the national scheme is stressing environmental sustainability, showing fewer concerns of social aspects, while the EU recently accredited voluntary systems, driven by a range of actors, are more transformational concerning the inclusion of social concerns in producer countries. The study contributes to the important question on how to promote north-south justice and fairness aspects in governing a sustainable biofuel production by learning from the implementation of this potentially influential regulatory innovation.
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7.
  • Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Science - policy interfaces in impact assessment procedures
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Environmental and agricultural modelling: integrated approaches for policy impact assessment. - : Springer. - 9789048136193 - 9789048136186 ; , s. 275-294
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Modelling tools used in impact assessment procedures can be regarded as tools for communication between science and policy. In order to create an integrated system for modelling not only the scientific components have to be in place but also the science/policy interfaces in the assessment procedures have to be identified and their social dynamics understood.To make a system like SEAMLESS Integrated Framework (SEAMLESS-IF) applicable in a European decision-making process interaction with potential users of the system is needed during different stages of development. We are here describing some of the interactive work performed to enable user involvement in the development of the framework and the learning that was triggered by this. The two cases presented are SEAMLESS User Forum with participants from the EU administration and the process of setting up assessments in test situations with regional administrations.The experience obtained from these interactions form a base for the discussion as to whether the design of SEAMLESS-IF is suited to contribute to an institutionalisation of a deliberative impact assessment process.
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8.
  • Elmqvist, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • Does the EU renewable Energy Directive contribute to fair and just governance of the biofuel sector? A comparison between the Swedish national scheme and EU accredited voluntary schemes
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the search for viable pathways for transforming governance and institutions in the Rio+20 agenda,strengthening of public‐private governance networks has been emphasized. Important initiatives arefound in the expanding bioenergy sector where several certification schemes have been launched forensuring that bioenergy feedstock meet environmental and social requirements. These initiatives areencouraged by the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED). RED states that biofuels should replace10% of Europe's fossil fuel in transport by 2020. However, the production of bioliquids raises seriousenvironmental and social sustainability concerns in producer countries. In order to contribute to theEU targets, economic operators most comply with a set of sustainability criteria through one of threereporting schemes. This study, emphasizing the Swedish case as one of the first countries totranspose RED into national law, focuses on which reporting system is chosen by economic operatorsand on what grounds. Are social concerns such as labor rights, land and resource rights consideredimportant factors? Preliminary work show that the national scheme is stressing environmentalsustainability, showing fewer concerns of social aspects, while the EU recently accredited voluntarysystems, driven by a range of actors, are more transformational concerning the inclusion of socialconcerns in producer countries. The study contributes to the important question on how to promotenorth‐south justice and fairness aspects in governing a sustainable biofuel production by learningfrom the implementation of this potentially influential regulatory innovation.
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9.
  • Elmqvist, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • Hållbarhetskrav på biodrivmedel
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: 15 nedslag i klimatforskningen : dåtid, nutid, framtid. - : Centrum för miljö- och klimatforskning, Lunds universitet. - 9789163723384 ; , s. 195-208
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
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10.
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