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Sökning: WFRF:(Brohede Samuel 1977 ) > Tidskriftsartikel > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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1.
  • Brohede, Samuel, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Internal consistency in the Odin stratospheric ozone products
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Physics. - 1208-6045. ; 85:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The two independent instruments on the Odin satellite, the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) and the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) produce atmospheric profiles of various atmospheric species including stratospheric ozone. Comparisons are made between OSIRIS version 3.0 and SMR version 2.1 ozone data to evaluate the consistency of the Odin ozone data sets. Results show good agreement between OSIRIS and SMR in the range 25–40 km, where systematic differences are less than 15% for all latitudes and seasons. Larger systematic differences are seen below 25 km, which can be explained by the increase of various error sources and lower signals. The random differences are between 20–30% in the middle stratosphere. Differences between Odin up-scans and down-scans or AM and PM are insignificant in the middle stratosphere. Furthermore, there is little variation from year to year, but a slight positive trend in the differences (OSIRIS minus SMR) of 0.045 ppmv/year at 30 km over validation period (2002–2006). The fact that the two fundamentally different measurement techniques, (absorption spectroscopy of scattering sunlight and emission measurements in the sub-millimetre region) agree so well, provides confidence in the robustness of both techniques.
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2.
  • Jones, Ashley, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapour time series studied with satellite measurements
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9, s. 6055-6075
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The long term evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapour has been investigated by extending satellite time series to April 2008. For ozone, we examine monthly average ozone values from various satellite data sets for nine latitude and altitude bins covering 60° S to 60° N and 20–45 km and covering the time period of 1979–2008. Data are from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE I+II), the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Solar BackscatterUltraViolet-2 (SBUV/2) instrument, the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR), the Optical Spectrograph InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS), and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartograpY (SCIAMACHY). Monthly ozone anomalies are calculated by utilising a linear regression model, which also models the solar, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and seasonal cycle contributions. Individual instrument ozone anomalies are combined producing an all instrument average. Assuming a turning point of 1997 and that the all instrument average is represented by good instrumental long term stability, the largest statistically significant ozone declines (at two sigma) from 1979–1997 are seen at the mid-latitudes between 35 and 45 km, namely −7.2%±0.9%/decade in the Northern Hemisphere and −7.1%±0.9%/in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, for the period 1997 to 2008 we find that the same locations show the largest ozone recovery (+1.4% and +0.8%/decade respectively) compared to other global regions, although the estimated trend model errors indicate that the trend estimates are not significantly different from a zero trend at the 2 sigma level. An all instrument average is also constructed from water vapour anomalies during 1991–2008, using the SAGE II, HALOE, SMR, and the Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS) measurements. We report that the decrease in water vapour values after 2001 slows down around 2004–2005 in the lower tropical stratosphere (20–25 km) and has even shown signs of increasing until present. We show that a similar correlation is also seen with the temperature measured at 100 hPa during this same period.
3.
  • Rösevall, John, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • A study of ozone depletion in the 2004/2005 Arctic winter based on data from Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 113:D13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ozone depletion in the colder than average 2004/2005 Arctic polar vortex is mapped and quantified using ozone profiles from two limb sounding satellite instruments, the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS) and the Odin Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin/SMR). Profiles of chemically inert nitrous oxide (N(2)O) are used to trace vertical transport during the winter. Two methods are used for estimating the vortex average ozone losses north of 67 degrees equivalent latitude. In a first step, the time evolution of ozone mixing ratios is described on N(2)O isopleths. Maximum ozone depletion is found on the 100 ppbv and 150 ppbv N(2)O isopleths (located in the 430-460 K potential temperature range in mid-March 2005) where vortex average ozone depletion totalled 1.0-1.1 ppmv for Aura/MLS and 0.7-0.9 ppmv for Odin/SMR. Second, ozone profiles from Aura/MLS and Odin/SMR are assimilated into the DIAMOND isentropic transport model. Ozone depletion is estimated by comparing assimilated fields to ozone fields passively transported from 1 January. On the 450 K potential temperature level, the Aura/MLS ozone fields indicate 0.9-1.3 ppmv vortex-averaged ozone depletion while the Odin/SMR fields indicate 0.6-0.9 ppmv depletion. The uncertainty depends mainly on the rates of cross-isentropic transport used in the study. The ozone depletion estimates in this study are lower than previously published estimates. The discrepancies to some studies can be attributed to the more adequate treatment of an ozone poor region that is found in the central polar vortex in the early winter.
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4.
  • Adams, C., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of ACE and OSIRIS ozone and NO2 measurements using ground-based instruments at 80 degrees N
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381. ; 5:5, s. 927-953
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), which is located at Eureka, Canada (80A degrees N, 86A degrees W) and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80A degrees N. Satellite 14-52 km ozone and 17-40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2) plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 +/- 0.2% and -0.2 +/- 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.0 ozone and NO2, respectively. Ozone columns were constructed from 14-52 km satellite and 0-14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree with the ground-based ozone total columns with mean relative differences of 0.1-7.3%. For NO2, partial columns from 17 km upward were scaled to noon using a photochemical model. Mean relative differences between OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and ground-based NO2 measurements do not exceed 20%. ACE-MAESTRO measures more NO2 than the other instruments, with mean relative differences of 25-52%. Seasonal variation in the differences between NO2 partial columns is observed, suggesting that there are systematic errors in the measurements and/or the photochemical model corrections. For ozone spring-time measurements, additional coincidence criteria based on stratospheric temperature and the location of the polar vortex were found to improve agreement between some of the instruments. For ACE-FTS v2.2 minus Bruker FTIR, the 2007-2009 spring-time mean relative difference improved from -5.0 +/- 0.4% to -3.1 +/- 0.8% with the dynamical selection criteria. This was the largest improvement, likely because both instruments measure direct sunlight and therefore have well-characterized lines-of-sight compared with scattered sunlight measurements. For NO2, the addition of a +/- 1A degrees latitude coincidence criterion improved spring-time intercomparison results, likely due to the sharp latitudinal gradient of NO2 during polar sunrise. The differences between satellite and ground-based measurements do not show any obvious trends over the missions, indicating that both the ACE and OSIRIS instruments continue to perform well.
5.
  • Angelbratt, Jon, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • A new method to detect long term trends of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) total columns measured within the NDACC ground-based high resolution solar FTIR network
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 11:13, s. 6167-6183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Total columns measured with the ground-based solar FTIR technique are highly variable in time due to atmospheric chemistry and dynamics in the atmosphere above the measurement station. In this paper, a multiple regression model with anomalies of air pressure, total columns of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and carbon monoxide (CO) and tropopause height are used to reduce the variability in the methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) total columns to estimate reliable linear trends with as small uncertainties as possible. The method is developed at the Harestua station (60 degrees N, 11 degrees E, 600 ma.s.l.) and used on three other European FTIR stations, i.e. Jungfraujoch (47 degrees N, 8 degrees E, 3600 ma.s.l.), Zugspitze (47 degrees N, 11 degrees E, 3000 ma.s.l.), and Kiruna (68 degrees N, 20 degrees E, 400 ma.s.l.). Linear CH(4) trends between 0.13 +/- 0.01-0.25 +/- 0.02% yr(-1) were estimated for all stations in the 1996-2009 period. A piecewise model with three separate linear trends, connected at change points, was used to estimate the short term fluctuations in the CH(4) total columns. This model shows a growth in 1996-1999 followed by a period of steady state until 2007. From 2007 until 2009 the atmospheric CH(4) amount increases between 0.57 +/- 0.22-1.15 +/- 0.17% yr(-1). Linear N(2)O trends between 0.19 +/- 0.01-0.40 +/- 0.02% yr(-1) were estimated for all stations in the 1996-2007 period, here with the strongest trend at Harestua and Kiruna and the lowest at the Alp stations. From the N(2)O total columns crude tropospheric and stratospheric partial columns were derived, indicating that the observed difference in the N(2)O trends between the FTIR sites is of stratospheric origin. This agrees well with the N(2)O measurements by the SMR instrument onboard the Odin satellite showing the highest trends at Harestua, 0.98 +/- 0.28% yr(-1), and considerably smaller trends at lower latitudes, 0.27 +/- 0.25% yr(-1). The multiple regression model was compared with two other trend methods, the ordinary linear regression and a Bootstrap algorithm. The multiple regression model estimated CH(4) and N(2)O trends that differed up to 31% compared to the other two methods and had uncertainties that were up to 300% lower. Since the multiple regression method were carefully validated this stresses the importance to account for variability in the total columns when estimating trend from solar FTIR data.
6.
  • Bourassa, A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Fast NO2 retrievals from Odin-OSIRIS limb scatter measurements
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381. ; 4:5, s. 965-972
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The feasibility of retrieving vertical profiles of NO2 from space-based measurements of limb scattered sunlight has been demonstrated using several different data sets since the 1980's. The NO2 data product routinely retrieved from measurements made by the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument onboard the Odin satellite uses a spectral fitting technique over the 437 to 451 nm range, over which there are 36 individual wavelength measurements. In this work we present a proof of concept technique for the retrieval of NO2 using only 4 of the 36 OSIRIS measurements in this wavelength range, which reduces the computational cost by almost an order of magnitude. The method is an adaptation of a triplet analysis technique that is currently used for the OSIRIS retrievals of ozone at Chappuis band wavelengths. The results obtained are shown to be in very good agreement with the spectral fit method, and provide an important alternative for applications where the computational burden is very high. Additionally this provides a baseline for future instrument design in terms of cost effectiveness and reducing spectral range requirements.
7.
  • Brohede, Samuel, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • A stratospheric NO2 climatology from Odin/OSIRIS limb-scatter measurements
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Physics. - 1208-6045. ; 85:11, s. 1253-1274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A climatology of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in terms of mean and standard deviation, as a function of latitude (5° bins); altitude (10–46 km in 2 km bins); local solar time (24 h); and month is constructed based on the Odin/OSIRIS limb-scattering data from 2002–2005. The measured profiles, given at specific local solar times, are scaled to all 24 h using a photochemical box model. The Odin orbit gives near global coverage around the equinoxes and hemispheric coverage elsewhere, due to lack of sunlight. The mean NO2 field at a specific local solar time involves high concentrations in the polar summer, peaking at around 25 km, with a negative equatorward gradient. Distinct high levels between 40–50° latitude at 30 km in the winter/spring hemisphere are also found, associated with the so-called {Noxon-cliff}. The diurnal cycle reveals the lowest NO2 concentrations just after sunrise and steep gradients at twilight. The 1σ standard deviation is generally quite low, around 20%, except for winter and spring high latitudes, where values are well above 50% and stretch through the entire stratosphere, a phenomenon probably related to the polar vortex. It is also found that NO2 concentrations are log-normally distributed. Comparisons to a climatology based on data from a (REPROBUS) chemical transport model for the same time period reveal relative differences below 20% in general, which is comparable to the estimated OSIRIS systematic uncertainty. Clear exceptions are the polar regions in winter/spring throughout the atmosphere and equatorial regions below 25 km, where OSIRIS is relatively higher by 40% and more. These discrepancies are most likely attributable to limitations of the model, but this has to be investigated further.
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8.
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9.
  • Brohede, Samuel, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Odin stratospheric proxy NOy measurements and climatology
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:19, s. 5731-5754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Five years of OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System) NO2 and SMR (Sub-millimetre and Millimetre Radiometer) HNO3 observations from the Odin satellite, combined with data from a photochemical box model, have been used to construct a stratospheric proxy NOy data set including the gases: NO, NO2, HNO3, 2×N2O5 and ClONO2. This Odin NOy climatology is based on all daytime measurements and contains monthly mean and standard deviation, expressed as mixing ratio or number density, as function of latitude or equivalent latitude (5° bins) on 17 vertical layers (altitude, pressure or potential temperature) between 14 and 46 km. Comparisons with coincident NOy profiles from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument were used to evaluate several methods to combine Odin observations with model data. This comparison indicates that the most appropriate merging technique uses OSIRIS measurements of NO2, scaled with model NO/NO2 ratios, to estimate NO. The sum of 2×N2O5 and ClONO2 is estimated from uncertainty-based weighted averages of scaled observations of SMR HNO3 and OSIRIS NO2. Comparisons with ACE-FTS suggest the precision (random error) and accuracy (systematic error) of Odin NOy profiles are about 15% and 20%, respectively. Further comparisons between Odin and the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) show agreement to within 20% and 2 ppb throughout most of the stratosphere except in the polar vortices. The combination of good temporal and spatial coverage, a relatively long data record, and good accuracy and precision make this a valuable NOy product for various atmospheric studies and model assessments.
10.
  • Brohede, Samuel, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Odin/OSIRIS stratospheric NO2 profiles
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 112:D07310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the validation study of stratospheric NO2 profiles retrieved from Odin/OSIRIS measurements of limb-scattered sunlight (version 2.4). The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) NO2 data set is compared to coincident solar occultation measurements by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, SAGE III, and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III during the 2002–2004 period. Comparisons with seven Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithal (SAOZ) balloon measurements are also presented. All comparisons show good agreement, with differences, both random and systematic, of less than 20% between 25 km and 35 km. Inconsistencies with SAGE III below 25 km are found to be caused primarily by diurnal effects from varying NO2 concentrations along the SAGE III line-of-sight. On the basis of the differences, the OSIRIS random uncertainty is estimated to be 16% between 15 km and 25 km, 6% between 25 km and 35 km, and 9% between 35 km and 40 km. The estimated systematic uncertainty is about 22% between 15 and 25 km, 11–21% between 25 km and 35 km, and 11–31% between 35 km and 40 km. The uncertainties for AM (sunrise) profiles are generally largest and systematic deviations are found to be larger at equatorial latitudes. The results of this validation study show that the OSIRIS NO2 profiles are well behaved, with reasonable uncertainty estimates between 15 km and 40 km. This unique NO2 data set, with more than hemispheric coverage and high vertical resolution will be of particular interest for studies of nitrogen chemistry in the middle atmosphere, which is closely linked to ozone depletion.
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