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1.
  • Abbas, Sascha, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nutrition and Cancer. - Taylor & Francis. - 0163-5581. ; 65:2, s. 178-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87-1.32) and 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80-1.19) and 0.90 (0.79-1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (P(trend) = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (P(interaction) = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk.
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2.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Adiposity, mediating biomarkers and risk of colon cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136. ; 134:3, s. 612-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adiposity is a risk factor for colon cancer, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the extent to which 11 biomarkers with inflammatory and metabolic actions mediate the association of adiposity measures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), with colon cancer in men and women. We analyzed data from a prospective nested case-control study among 662 incident colon cancer cases matched within risk sets to 662 controls. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The percent effect change and corresponding CIs were estimated after adjusting for biomarkers shown to be associated with colon cancer risk. After multivariable adjustment, WC was associated with colon cancer risk in men (top vs. bottom tertile RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.06-2.65; ptrend  = 0.02) and in women (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56; ptrend  = 0.03). BMI was associated with risk only in men. The association of WC with colon cancer was accounted mostly for by three biomarkers, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-molecular-weight adiponectin and soluble leptin receptor, which in combination explained 46% (95% CI 37-57%) of the association in men and 50% (95% CI 40-65%) of the association in women. Similar results were observed for the associations with BMI in men. These data suggest that alterations in levels of these metabolic biomarkers may represent a primary mechanism of action in the relation of adiposity with colon cancer. Further studies are warranted to determine whether altering their concentrations may reduce colon cancer risk.
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3.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Leptin and soluble leptin receptor in risk of colorectal cancer in the European prospective investigation into Cancer and nutrition cohort
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - Philadelphia, USA : American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472. ; 72:20, s. 5328-5337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leptin, a peptide hormone produced primarily by the adipocytes, is hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) may regulate leptin's physiologic functions; however its relation to CRC risk is unknown. This study explored the association of leptin and sOB-R with risk of CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 1,129 incident CRC cases (713 colon, 416 rectal) were matched within risk sets to 1,129 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). After multivariable adjustment including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and baseline leptin concentrations, sOB-R was strongly inversely associated with CRC (RR comparing the highest quintile vs. the lowest, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40-0.76; P-trend = 0.0004) and colon cancer (RR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28-0.63, P-trend = 0.0001); whereas no association was seen for rectal cancer (RR adjusted for BMI and waist circumference, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.48-1.44, P-trend = 0.38). In contrast, leptin was not associated with risk of CRC (RR adjusted for BMI and waist circumference, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-1.29, P-trend = 0.23). Additional adjustments for circulating metabolic biomarkers did not attenuate these results. These novel findings suggest a strong inverse association between circulating sOB-R and CRC risk, independent of obesity measures, leptin concentrations, and other metabolic biomarkers. Further research is needed to confirm the potentially important role of sOB-R in CRC pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 72(20); 5328-37. (C) 2012 AACR.
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4.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic syndrome and risks of colon and rectal cancer : the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). - 1940-6215. ; 4:11, s. 1873-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is purportedly related to risk of developing colorectal cancer; however, the association of MetS, as defined according to recent international criteria, and colorectal cancer has not been yet evaluated. In particular, it remains unclear to what extent the MetS components individually account for such an association. We addressed these issues in a nested case-control study that included 1,093 incident cases matched (1:1) to controls by using incidence density sampling. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the 2009 harmonized definition. Among individual components, abdominal obesity (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.16-1.96) was associated with colon cancer, whereas abnormal glucose metabolism was associated with both colon (RR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.57-2.68) and rectal cancer (RR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.45-2.96). MetS, as defined by each of the definitions, was similarly associated with colon cancer (e.g., RR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII), whereas MetS by NCEP/ATPIII, but not IDF or harmonized definition, was associated with rectal cancer (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02-2.06). Overall, these associations were stronger in women than in men. However, the association between MetS and colorectal cancer was accounted for by abdominal obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism such that MetS did not provide risk information beyond these components (likelihood ratio test P = 0.10 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII). These data suggest that simple assessment of abnormal glucose metabolism and/or abdominal obesity to identify individuals at colorectal cancer risk may have higher clinical utility than applying more complex MetS definitions. Cancer Prev Res; 4(11); 1873-83. ©2011 AACR.
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5.
  • Buckland, Genevieve, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 91:2, s. 381-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean dietary pattern is believed to protect against cancer, although evidence from cohort studies that have examined particular cancer sites is limited.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the association between adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) and incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.DESIGN: The study included 485,044 subjects (144,577 men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries. At recruitment, dietary and lifestyle information was collected. An 18-unit rMED score, incorporating 9 key components of the Mediterranean diet, was used to estimate rMED adherence. The association between rMED and GC with respect to anatomic location (cardia and noncardia) and histologic types (diffuse and intestinal) was investigated. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement error.RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 8.9 y, 449 validated incident GC cases were identified and used in the analysis. After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized cancer risk factors, high compared with low rMED adherence was associated with a significant reduction in GC risk (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). A 1-unit increase in the rMED score was associated with a decreased risk of GC of 5% (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between different anatomic locations or histologic types. The calibrated results showed similar trends (overall hazard ratio for GC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99).CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to an rMED is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of incident GC.
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6.
  • Ferrari, Pietro, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary fiber intake and risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 97:2, s. 344-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Limited scientific evidence has characterized the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer (BC) by menopausal status and hormone receptor expression in tumors. ' Objective: We investigated the relation between total dietary fiber and its main food sources (vegetables, fruit, cereals, and legumes) and BC risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design: A total of 11,576 invasive BC cases in 334,849 EPIC women mostly aged 35-70 y at baseline were identified over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary fiber was estimated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between dietary variables and BC risk with energy adjustment by using the residual method. Subgroup analyses were performed by menopausal status and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in tumors. Results: BC risk was inversely associated with intakes of total dietary fiber [hazard ratio comparing fifth quintile to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1): 0.95; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.01; P-trend = 0.03] and fiber from vegetables (0.90; 0.84, 0.96; P-trend < 0.01) but not with fiber from fruit, cereals, or legumes. Overall, associations were homogeneous by menopausal status and ER and PR expression in tumors. For vegetable fiber, stronger associations were observed for estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor-negative (HRQ5-Q1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.93; P-trend = 0.01) than for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors (0.92: 0.81, 1.03; P-trend = 0.05), with P-heterogeneity = 0.09. Conclusion: Diets rich in dietary fiber and, particularly, fiber from vegetables may be associated with a small reduction in risk of BC, independently of menopausal status. 
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7.
  • Huerta, José María, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective study of physical activity and risk of primary adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and stomach in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition) cohort
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Springer. - 0957-5243. ; 21:5, s. 657-669
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To analyse the association between types of physical activity (occupational, recreational and household, vigorous and overall) and risk of primary oesophageal (OAC) or gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). From nine European countries, 420,449 participants were recruited between 1991 and 2000 and followed-up for a mean of 8.8 years to register incident GAC and OAC. Information on physical activity (PA), diet, lifestyle and health-related variables was obtained at baseline. Helicobacter pylori infection status was considered in a subset of 1,211 participants. Analyses were repeated by tumour site (cardia/non-cardia) and histological type (intestinal/diffuse). During the follow-up, 410 GAC and 80 OAC occurred. A lower risk of overall and non-cardia GAC was found for increasing levels of a PA index which combined occupational PA with weekly time spent in sports and cycling. The hazard ratio (HR) of GAC was 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94, for the comparison between active and inactive participants according to the PA index (HR = 0.44, 95% CI:0.26-0.74, for non-cardia GAC). No effect was found for cardia tumours or histological subtypes of GAC. PA of any kind was not associated with OAC. Overall and distal (non-cardia) gastric tumours were inversely associated with time spent on cycling and sports and a total PA index. No association was found for any type of PA and risk of cardia cancers of the stomach.
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8.
  • Kaaks, Rudolf, et al. (författare)
  • Premenopausal serum sex hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk, overall and by hormone receptor status-Results from the EPIC cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 134:8, s. 1947-1957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from prospective studies on premenopausal serum hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, especially with regard to tumor subtypes. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (801 breast cancer cases and 1,132 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels with the risk of breast cancer by estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors and by age at diagnoses. Higher prediagnostic serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone were associated with an increased overall risk of breast cancer [ORQ4-Q1=1.56 (95% CI 1.15-2.13), p(trend)=0.02 for testosterone and ORQ4-Q1=1.33 (95% CI 0.99-1.79), p(trend)=0.04 for free testosterone], but no significant risk association was observed for estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone and SHBG. Tests for heterogeneity between receptor-positive and -negative tumors were not significant. When analysis were stratified by age at tumor diagnosis, the odds ratios observed for estradiol were stronger and borderline significant for breast cancer diagnosed at age less than 50 [ORQ4-Q1=1.32 (95% CI 0.87-2.01), p(trend)=0.05] compared to breast cancer diagnosed at age 50 or above [ORQ4-Q1=0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.47), p(trend)=0.34, p(het)=0.04]. In conclusion, our data indicate that higher premenopausal circulating testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, but do not show a significant association of estradiol or progesterone with breast cancer risk, overall, by menstrual cycle phase or by tumor receptor status, although a possible risk increase with higher estradiol levels for tumors diagnosed before age 50 was seen.
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9.
  • Kroeger, Janine, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations:
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer. - 0012-186X. ; 57:2, s. 321-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in European populations. From among a case-cohort of 12,403 incident diabetes cases and 16,154 subcohort members nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, we used data on 9,682 cases and 12,595 subcohort participants from seven countries. Habitual dietary intake was assessed at baseline with country-specific dietary questionnaires. Two diet-quality scores (alternative Healthy Eating Index aHEI, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH score) and three reduced rank regression (RRR)-derived dietary-pattern scores were constructed. Country-specific HRs were calculated and combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. After multivariable adjustment, including body size, the aHEI and DASH scores were not significantly associated with diabetes, although for the aHEI there was a tendency towards an inverse association in countries with higher mean age. We observed inverse associations of the three RRR-derived dietary-pattern scores with diabetes: HRs (95% CIs) for a 1-SD difference were 0.91 (0.86, 0.96), 0.92 (0.84, 1.01) and 0.87 (0.82, 0.92). Random-effects meta-analyses revealed heterogeneity between countries that was explainable by differences in the age of participants or the distribution of dietary intake. Adherence to specific RRR-derived dietary patterns, commonly characterised by high intake of fruits or vegetables and low intake of processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages and refined grains, may lower type 2 diabetes risk.
10.
  • Ritte, Rebecca, et al. (författare)
  • Adiposity, hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk by age and hormone receptor status
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Breast cancer research : BCR. - London : BioMed Central. - 1465-542X. ; 14:3, s. R76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Associations of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with excess adiposity are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) with hormone-receptor negative malignancies, and possible interactions by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. METHODS: Within the European EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationship of BMI, waist and hip circumferences with risk of estrogen-receptor (ER) negative and progesterone-receptor (PR) negative (n = 1,021) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,586) breast tumors within five-year age bands. Among postmenopausal women, the joint effects of BMI and HRT use were analyzed. RESULTS: For risk of ER-PR- tumors, there was no association of BMI across the age bands. However, when analyses were restricted to postmenopausal HRT never users, a positive risk association with BMI (third versus first tertile HR = 1.47 (1.01 to 2.15)) was observed. BMI was inversely associated with ER+PR+ tumors among women aged ≤49 years (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.79 (95%CI 0.68 to 0.91)), and positively associated with risk among women ≥65 years (HR = 1.25 (1.16 to 1.34)). Adjusting for BMI, waist and hip circumferences showed no further associations with risks of breast cancer subtypes. Current use of HRT was significantly associated with an increased risk of receptor-negative (HRT current use compared to HRT never use HR: 1.30 (1.05 to 1.62)) and positive tumors (HR: 1.74 (1.56 to 1.95)), although this risk increase was weaker for ER-PR- disease (Phet = 0.035). The association of HRT was significantly stronger in the leaner women (BMI ≤22.5 kg/m2) than for more overweight women (BMI ≥25.9 kg/m2) for, both, ER-PR- (HR: 1.74 (1.15 to 2.63)) and ER+PR+ (HR: 2.33 (1.84 to 2.92)) breast cancer and was not restricted to any particular HRT regime. CONCLUSIONS: An elevated BMI may be positively associated with risk of ER-PR- tumors among postmenopausal women who never used HRT. Furthermore, postmenopausal HRT users were at an increased risk of ER-PR- as well as ER+PR+ tumors, especially among leaner women. For hormone-receptor positive tumors, but not for hormone-receptor negative tumors, our study confirms an inverse association of risk with BMI among young women of premenopausal age. Our data provide evidence for a possible role of sex hormones in the etiology of hormone-receptor negative tumors.
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