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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Carpenter P. T.) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Carpenter P. T.) > (2005-2009)

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3.
  • Abe, O, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 365:9472, s. 1687-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Quinquennial overviews (1985-2000) of the randomised trials in early breast cancer have assessed the 5-year and 10-year effects of various systemic adjuvant therapies on breast cancer recurrence and survival. Here, we report the 10-year and 15-year effects. Methods Collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken of 194 unconfounded randomised trials of adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy that began by 1995. Many trials involved CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil), anthracycline-based combinations such as FAC (fluorouracil, doxombicin, cyclophosphamide) or FEC (fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide), tamoxifen, or ovarian suppression: none involved taxanes, trastuzumab, raloxifene, or modem aromatase inhibitors. Findings Allocation to about 6 months of anthracycline-based polychemotherapy (eg, with FAC or FEC) reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by about 38% (SE 5) for women younger than 50 years of age when diagnosed and by about 20% (SE 4) for those of age 50-69 years when diagnosed, largely irrespective of the use of tamoxifen and of oestrogen receptor (ER) status, nodal status, or other tumour characteristics. Such regimens are significantly (2p=0 . 0001 for recurrence, 2p<0 . 00001 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than CMF chemotherapy. Few women of age 70 years or older entered these chemotherapy trials. For ER-positive disease only, allocation to about 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by 31% (SE 3), largely irrespective of the use of chemotherapy and of age (<50, 50-69, &GE; 70 years), progesterone receptor status, or other tumour characteristics. 5 years is significantly (2p<0 . 00001 for recurrence, 2p=0 . 01 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than just 1-2 years of tamoxifen. For ER-positive tumours, the annual breast cancer mortality rates are similar during years 0-4 and 5-14, as are the proportional reductions in them by 5 years of tamoxifen, so the cumulative reduction in mortality is more than twice as big at 15 years as at 5 years after diagnosis. These results combine six meta-analyses: anthracycline-based versus no chemotherapy (8000 women); CMF-based versus no chemotherapy (14 000); anthracycline-based versus CMF-based chemotherapy (14 000); about 5 years of tamoxifen versus none (15 000); about 1-2 years of tamoxifen versus none (33 000); and about 5 years versus 1-2 years of tamoxifen (18 000). Finally, allocation to ovarian ablation or suppression (8000 women) also significantly reduces breast cancer mortality, but appears to do so only in the absence of other systemic treatments. For middle-aged women with ER-positive disease (the commonest type of breast cancer), the breast cancer mortality rate throughout the next 15 years would be approximately halved by 6 months of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (with a combination such as FAC or FEC) followed by 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. For, if mortality reductions of 38% (age <50 years) and 20% (age 50-69 years) from such chemotherapy were followed by a further reduction of 31% from tamoxifen in the risks that remain, the final mortality reductions would be 57% and 45%, respectively (and, the trial results could well have been somewhat stronger if there had been full compliance with the allocated treatments). Overall survival would be comparably improved, since these treatments have relatively small effects on mortality from the aggregate of all other causes. Interpretation Some of the widely practicable adjuvant drug treatments that were being tested in the 1980s, which substantially reduced 5-year recurrence rates (but had somewhat less effect on 5-year mortality rates), also substantially reduce 15-year mortality rates. Further improvements in long-term survival could well be available from newer drugs, or better use of older drugs.
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4.
  • Riley, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of states beyond band termination in Er-156,Er-157,Er-158 and strongly deformed structures in Hf-173,Hf-174,Hf-175
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physica Scripta. - : Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd.. - 0031-8949. ; T125, s. 123-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-spin terminating bands in heavy nuclei were first identified in nuclei around Er-158(90). While examples of terminating states have been identified in a number of erbium isotopes, almost nothing is known about the states lying beyond band termination. In the present work, the high-spin structure of Er-156,Er-157,Er-158 has been studied using the Gammasphere spectrometer. The subject of triaxial superdeformation and 'wobbling' modes in Lu nuclei has rightly attracted a great deal of attention. Very recently four strongly or superdeformed (SD) sequences have been observed in Hf-174, and cranking calculations using the Ultimate Cranker code predict that such structures may have significant triaxial deformation. We have performed two experiments in an attempt to verify the possible triaxial nature of these bands. A lifetime measurement was performed to confirm the large (and similar) deformation of the bands. In addition, a high-statistics, thin-target experiment took place to search for linking transitions between the SD bands, possible wobbling modes, and new SD band structures.
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5.
  • Riley, M A, et al. (författare)
  • Beyond band termination in Er-157 and the search for wobbling excitations in strongly deformed Hf-174
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. - : IOP Publishing. - 0954-3899. ; 31:10, s. 1735-1740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-spin terminating bands in heavy nuclei were first identified in nuclei around Er-158(90). While examples of special terminating states have been identified in a number of erbium isotopes, almost nothing is known about the states lying beyond band termination. In the present work the high-spin structure of Er-157 has been studied using the Gammasphere spectrometer. The subject of triaxial superdeformation and 'wobbling' modes in Lu nuclei has rightly attracted a great deal of attention. Very recently, four strongly or superdeformed (SD) sequences have been observed in Hf-174 and ultimate cranker calculations predict, such structures may have significant triaxial deformation. We have performed two experiments in an attempt to verify the possible triaxial nature of these bands. A lifetime measurement was performed to confirm the large (and similar) deformation of the bands. In addition, a high-statistics, thin-target experiment was run to search for linking transitions between the SD bands and possible wobbling modes.
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6.
  • Al-Khatib, A, et al. (författare)
  • Transition to non-collective states at high spin in Xe-124
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal A. Hadrons and Nuclei. - : Springer. - 1434-6001. ; 36:1, s. 21-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excited states in Xe-124 were populated in the reaction Se-82(Ca-48, 6n) Xe-124 and gamma-ray coincidence relationships were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two new bands are observed and several of the previously known bands are extended in the high-as well as in the low-spin region. Two irregular high-spin structures are also added. The irregularities are a fingerprint of a transition from collective to non-collective behaviour. Configuration assignments to the new structures are proposed on the basis of systematics and by comparing experimental properties with calculations within the framework of the cranking model.
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7.
  • Riley, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Strongly Deformed Nuclear Shapes at Ultra-High Spin and Shape Coexistence in N\sim 90 Nuclei
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Physica Polonica B. - : Jagellonian University, Cracow, Poland. - 0587-4254. ; 40:3, s. 513-522
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The N similar to 90 region of the nuclear chart has featured prominently as the spectroscopy of nuclei at extreme spin has progressed. This talk will present recent discoveries from investigations of high spin behavior in the N similar to 90 Er, Tm and Yb nuclei utilizing the Gammasphere gamma-ray spectrometer. In particular it will include discussion of the beautiful shape evolution and coexistence observed in these nuclei along with the identification of a remarkable new family of band structures. The latter are very weakly populated rotational sequences with high moment of inertia that bypass the classic terminating configurations near spin 40-50 (h) over bar, marking a return to collectivity that extends discrete gamma-ray spectroscopy to well over 60 (h) over bar. Establishing the nature of the yrast states in these nuclei beyond the oblate band-termination states has been a major goal for the past two decades. Cranking calculations suggest that these new structures most likely represent stable triaxial strongly deformed bands that lie in a valley of favored shell energy in deformation and particle-number space.
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8.
  • Campbell, D. B., et al. (författare)
  • Rotational structures and their evolution with spin in Gd-152
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 75:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fusion-evaporation reaction involving a 175 MeV S-36 beam and a Sn-124 target was performed, and the emitted gamma rays were observed with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Significant additions to the level scheme of Gd-152 were made in spite of the relative weakness of the alpha 4n exit channel, being only similar to 2% of the total fusion cross-section. The high-spin behavior of Gd-152 was compared with that of other N=88 nuclei. A striking similarity was observed with Dy-154 and it is therefore suggested that the angular-momentum-induced shape changes that take place in Dy-154 also occur in Gd-152 in the 30-40h spin range. This is supported by Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations which were used to interpret the high-spin bands. It is found that a better agreement between calculation and experiment is obtained if the Z=64 shell gap increases with a decreasing number of valence particles outside the doubly-closed Gd-146(64)82 nucleus.
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9.
  • Chiara, C. J., et al. (författare)
  • Probing sd-fp Cross-shell Interactions via Terminating Configurations in 42Sc,43Sc
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 75:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experimental study of the lower fp-shell nuclei Sc-42,Sc-43 was performed via alpha pn and alpha p evaporation, respectively, from Ne-20 + Si-28 and Mg-24 + Mg-24 fusion-evaporation reactions. The experiments were conducted with the Gammasphere and Microball detector arrays. The level schemes of both nuclei have been extended considerably. Terminating states associated with the f(7/2)(n) and d(3/2)(-1)f(7/2)(n+1) configurations were identified in each nuclide and incorporated into detailed comparisons with neighboring nuclei and with shell model calculations. The energy differences between the terminating states provide a test of the sd-fp cross-shell interactions in these calculations.
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10.
  • Hartley, D. J., et al. (författare)
  • Wobbling mode in Ta-167
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 80:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The collective wobbling mode, the strongest signature for the rotation of a triaxial nucleus, has previously been seen only in a few Lu isotopes in spite of extensive searches in nearby isotopes. A sequence of transitions in the N = 94 Ta-167 nucleus exhibiting features similar to those attributed to the wobbling bands in the Lu nuclei has now been found. This band feeds into the pi i(13/2) band at a relative energy similar to that seen in the established wobbling bands and its dynamic moment of inertia and alignment properties are nearly identical to the i(13/2) structure over a significant frequency range. Given these characteristics, it is likely that the wobbling mode has been observed for the first time in a nucleus other than Lu, making this collective motion a more general phenomenon.
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