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Sökning: WFRF:(Coheur P. F.)

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1.
  • Clerbaux, C., et al. (författare)
  • CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 2569-2594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO), a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006). We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane) observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES) as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS) were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above). These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km), than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km), and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.
2.
  • Laj, P., et al. (författare)
  • Measuring Atmospheric Composition Change
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 43:33, s. 5351-5414
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Scientific findings from the last decades have clearly highlighted the need for a more comprehensive approach to atmospheric change processes. In fact, observation of atmospheric composition variables has been an important activity of atmospheric research that has developed instrumental tools (advanced analytical techniques) and platforms (instrumented passenger aircrafts, ground-based in-situ and remote sensing stations, earth observation satellite instruments) providing essential information on the composition of the atmosphere. The variability of the atmospheric system and the extreme complexity of the atmospheric cycles for short-lived gaseous and aerosol species have led to the development of complex models to interpret observations, test our theoretical understanding of atmospheric chemistry and predict future atmospheric composition. The validation of numerical models requires accurate information concerning the variability of atmospheric composition for targeted species via comparison with observations and measurements. In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in instrumentation and methodologies for measuring atmospheric composition changes from space, aircraft and the surface as well as recent improvements in laboratory techniques that permitted scientific advance in the field of atmospheric chemistry. Emphasis is given to the most promising and innovative technologies that will become operational in the near future to improve knowledge of atmospheric composition. Our current observation capacity, however, is not satisfactory to understand and predict future atmospheric composition changes, in relation to predicted climate warming. Based on the limitation of the current European observing system, we address the major gaps in a second part of the paper to explain why further developments in current observation strategies are still needed to strengthen and optimise an observing system not only capable of responding to the requirements of atmospheric services but also to newly open scientific questions.
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3.
  • Sutton, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. - 0962-8436. ; 368:1621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment-and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission-deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5 degrees C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28-67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45-85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89-179) Tg by 2100.
4.
  • Nassar, R., et al. (författare)
  • A global inventory of stratospheric chlorine in 2004
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 111:22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Total chlorine (CITOT) in the stratosphere has been determined using the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements of HCl, ClONO2, CH3Cl, CCl4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHClF2 (HCFC-22), CCl2FCClF2 (CFC-113), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), COClF, and ClO supplemented by data from several other sources, including both measurements and models. Separate chlorine inventories were carried out in five latitude zones (60°-82°N, 30°-60°N, 30°S-30°N, 30°-60°S, and 60°-82°S), averaging the period of February 2004 to January 2005 inclusive, when possible, to deal with seasonal variations. The effect of diurnal variation was avoided by only using measurements taken at local sunset. Mean stratospheric ClTOT values of 3.65 ppbv were determined for both the northern and southern midlatitudes (with an estimated 1σ, accuracy of ±0.13 ppbv and a precision of ±.09 ppbv), accompanied by a slightly lower value in the tropics and slightly higher values at high latitudes. Stratospheric ClTOT profiles in all five latitude zones are nearly linear with a slight positive slope in ppbv /km. Both the observed slopes and pattern of latitudinal variation can be interpreted as evidence of the beginning of a decline in global stratospheric chlorine, which is qualitatively consistent with the mean stratospheric circulation pattern and time lag necessary for transport.
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