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Sökning: WFRF:(Collins A) > (2020)

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1.
  • Diaz, Matias R., et al. (författare)
  • TOI-132 b: A short-period planet in the Neptune desert transiting a V=11.3 G-type star
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 493:1, s. 973-985
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Neptune desert is a feature seen in the radius-period plane, whereby a notable dearth of short period, Neptune-like planets is found. Here, we report the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) discovery of a new short-period planet in the Neptune desert, orbiting the G-type dwarf TYC 8003-1117-1 (TOI-132). TESS photometry shows transit-like dips at the level of similar to 1400 ppm occurring every similar to 2.11 d. High-precision radial velocity follow-up with High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher confirmed the planetary nature of the transit signal and provided a semi-amplitude radial velocity variation of 11.38(-0.85)(+0.84) m s(-1), which, when combined with the stellar mass of 0.97 +/- 0.06 M-circle dot, provides a planetary mass of 22.40(-1.92)(+1.90) M-circle plus. Modelling the TESS light curve returns a planet radius of 3.42(-0.14)(+0.13) R-circle plus , and therefore the planet bulk density is found to be 3.08(-0.46)(+0.44) g cm(-3). Planet structure models suggest that the bulk of the planet mass is in the form of a rocky core, with an atmospheric mass fraction of 4.3(-2.3)(+1.2) percent. TOI-132 b is a TESS Level 1 Science Requirement candidate, and therefore priority follow-up will allow the search for additional planets in the system, whilst helping to constrain low-mass planet formation and evolution models, particularly valuable for better understanding of the Neptune desert.
2.
  • Huang, Chelsea X., et al. (författare)
  • TESS Spots a Hot Jupiter with an Inner Transiting Neptune
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 892:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hot Jupiters are rarely accompanied by other planets within a factor of a few in orbital distance. Previously, only two such systems have been found. Here, we report the discovery of a third system using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The host star, TOI-1130, is an eleventh magnitude K-dwarf in Gaia G-band. It has two transiting planets: a Neptune-sized planet (3.65 ± 0.10 R\oplus) with a 4.1 days period, and a hot Jupiter (1.50-0.22+0.27 RJ) with an 8.4 days period. Precise radial-velocity observations show that the mass of the hot Jupiter is 0.974-0.044+0.043 MJ. For the inner Neptune, the data provide only an upper limit on the mass of 0.17 MJ (3σ). Nevertheless, we are confident that the inner planet is real, based on follow-up ground-based photometry and adaptive-optics imaging that rule out other plausible sources of the TESS transit signal. The unusual planetary architecture of and the brightness of the host star make TOI-1130 a good test case for planet formation theories, and an attractive target for future spectroscopic observations.
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4.
  • Jiang, Mingkai, et al. (författare)
  • The fate of carbon in a mature forest under carbon dioxide enrichment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 580:7802, s. 227-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment (eCO2) can enhance plant carbon uptake and growth1–5, thereby providing an important negative feedback to climate change by slowing the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration6. Although evidence gathered from young aggrading forests has generally indicated a strong CO2 fertilization effect on biomass growth3–5, it is unclear whether mature forests respond to eCO2 in a similar way. In mature trees and forest stands7–10, photosynthetic uptake has been found to increase under eCO2 without any apparent accompanying growth response, leaving the fate of additional carbon fixed under eCO2 unclear4,5,7–11. Here using data from the first ecosystem-scale Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment in a mature forest, we constructed a comprehensive ecosystem carbon budget to track the fate of carbon as the forest responded to four years of eCO2 exposure. We show that, although the eCO2 treatment of +150 parts per million (+38 per cent) above ambient levels induced a 12 per cent (+247 grams of carbon per square metre per year) increase in carbon uptake through gross primary production, this additional carbon uptake did not lead to increased carbon sequestration at the ecosystem level. Instead, the majority of the extra carbon was emitted back into the atmosphere via several respiratory fluxes, with increased soil respiration alone accounting for half of the total uptake surplus. Our results call into question the predominant thinking that the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks will be generally enhanced under eCO2, and challenge the efficacy of climate mitigation strategies that rely on ubiquitous CO2 fertilization as a driver of increased carbon sinks in global forests.
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5.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - WILEY. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.</p>
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7.
  • Lees, William, et al. (författare)
  • OGRDB : : a reference database of inferred immune receptor genes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nucleic Acids Research. - Oxford University Press. - 1362-4962. ; 48:D1, s. 964-970
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-throughput sequencing of the adaptive immune receptor repertoire (AIRR-seq) is providing unprecedented insights into the immune response to disease and into the development of immune disorders. The accurate interpretation of AIRR-seq data depends on the existence of comprehensive germline gene reference sets. Current sets are known to be incomplete and unrepresentative of the degree of polymorphism and diversity in human and animal populations. A key issue is the complexity of the genomic regions in which they lie, which, because of the presence of multiple repeats, insertions and deletions, have not proved tractable with short-read whole genome sequencing. Recently, tools and methods for inferring such gene sequences from AIRR-seq datasets have become available, and a community approach has been developed for the expert review and publication of such inferences. Here, we present OGRDB, the Open Germline Receptor Database (https://ogrdb.airr-community.org), a public resource for the submission, review and publication of previously unknown receptor germline sequences together with supporting evidence.
8.
  • Shingles, L. J., et al. (författare)
  • Monte Carlo radiative transfer for the nebular phase of Type Ia supernovae
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 492:2, s. 2029-2043
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We extend the range of validity of the ARTIS 3D radiative transfer code up to hundreds of days after explosion, when Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are in their nebular phase. To achieve this, we add a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium population and ionization solver, a new multifrequency radiation field model, and a new atomic data set with forbidden transitions. We treat collisions with non-thermal leptons resulting from nuclear decays to account for their contribution to excitation, ionization, and heating. We validate our method with a variety of tests including comparing our synthetic nebular spectra for the well-known one-dimensional W7 model with the results of other studies. As an illustrative application of the code, we present synthetic nebular spectra for the detonation of a sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarf (WD) in which the possible effects of gravitational settling of Ne-22 prior to explosion have been explored. Specifically, we compare synthetic nebular spectra for a 1.06 M-circle dot WD model obtained when 5.5 Gyr of very efficient settling is assumed to a similar model without settling. We find that this degree of Ne-22 settling has only amodest effect on the resulting nebular spectra due to increased Ni-58 abundance. Due to the high ionization in sub-Chandrasekhar models, the nebular [Ni II] emission remains negligible, while the [Ni III] line strengths are increased and the overall ionization balance is slightly lowered in the model with Ne-22 settling. In common with previous studies of sub-Chandrasekhar models at nebular epochs, these models overproduce [Fe III] emission relative to [Fe II] in comparison to observations of normal SNe Ia.</p>
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9.
  • Shingles, L. J., et al. (författare)
  • Monte Carlo radiative transfer for the nebular phase of Type Ia supernovae
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 492:2, s. 2029-2043
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We extend the range of validity of the ARTIS 3D radiative transfer code up to hundreds of days after explosion, when Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are in their nebular phase. To achieve this, we add a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium population and ionization solver, a new multifrequency radiation field model, and a new atomic data set with forbidden transitions. We treat collisions with non-thermal leptons resulting from nuclear decays to account for their contribution to excitation, ionization, and heating. We validate our method with a variety of tests including comparing our synthetic nebular spectra for the well-known one-dimensional W7 model with the results of other studies. As an illustrative application of the code, we present synthetic nebular spectra for the detonation of a sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarf (WD) in which the possible effects of gravitational settling of Ne-22 prior to explosion have been explored. Specifically, we compare synthetic nebular spectra for a 1.06 M-circle dot WD model obtained when 5.5 Gyr of very efficient settling is assumed to a similar model without settling. We find that this degree of Ne-22 settling has only amodest effect on the resulting nebular spectra due to increased Ni-58 abundance. Due to the high ionization in sub-Chandrasekhar models, the nebular [Ni II] emission remains negligible, while the [Ni III] line strengths are increased and the overall ionization balance is slightly lowered in the model with Ne-22 settling. In common with previous studies of sub-Chandrasekhar models at nebular epochs, these models overproduce [Fe III] emission relative to [Fe II] in comparison to observations of normal SNe Ia.</p>
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10.
  • Subjak, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • TOI-503: The First Known Brown-dwarf Am-star Binary from the TESS Mission
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 159:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of an intermediate-mass transiting brown dwarf (BD), TOI-503b, from the TESS mission. TOI-503b is the first BD discovered by TESS, and it has circular orbit around a metallic-line A-type star with a period of P.=.3.6772.+/-.0.0001 days. The light curve from TESS indicates that TOI-503b transits its host star in a grazing manner, which limits the precision with which we measure the BD's radius ( = R 1.34+ R b 0.150.26 J). We obtained highresolution spectroscopic observations with the FIES, Ondr.ejov, PARAS, Tautenburg, and TRES spectrographs, and measured the mass of TOI-503b to be Mb.=.53.7.+/-.1.2 MJ. The host star has a mass of Ma.=.1.80.+/-.0.06Me, a radius of Ra.=.1.70.+/-.0.05Re, an effective temperature of Teff.=.7650.+/-.160 K, and a relatively high metallicity of 0.61.+/-.0.07 dex. We used stellar isochrones to derive the age of the system to be 180 Myr, which places its age between that of RIK 72b (a 10 Myr old BD in the Upper Scorpius stellar association) and AD 3116b (a 600 Myr old BD in the Praesepe cluster). Given the difficulty in measuring the tidal interactions between BDs and their host stars, we cannot precisely say whether this BD formed in situ or has had its orbit circularized by its host star over the relatively short age of the system. Instead, we offer an examination of plausible values for the tidal quality factor for the star and BD. TOI-503b joins a growing number of known short-period, intermediate-mass BDs orbiting mainsequence stars, and is the second such BD known to transit an A star, after HATS-70b. With the growth in the population in this regime, the driest region in the BD desert (35-55MJ sin i) is reforesting.
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