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Sökning: WFRF:(Collins A) > (2005-2009) > (2009)

  • Resultat 21-30 av 30
  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
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24.
  • Newton-Cheh, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 41:6, s. 666-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global BPgen consortium and followed up findings with direct genotyping (<em>N</em> ≤ 71,225 European ancestry, <em>N</em> ≤ 12,889 Indian Asian ancestry) and <em>in silico</em> comparison (CHARGE consortium, <em>N</em> = 29,136). We identified association between systolic or diastolic blood pressure and common variants in eight regions near the <em>CYP17A1</em> (<em>P</em> = 7 × 10<sup>−24</sup>), <em>CYP1A2</em> (<em>P</em> = 1 × 10<sup>−23</sup>), <em>FGF5</em> (<em>P</em> = 1 × 10<sup>−21</sup>), <em>SH2B3</em> (<em>P</em> = 3 × 10<sup>−18</sup>), <em>MTHFR</em> (<em>P</em> = 2 × 10<sup>−13</sup>), <em>c10orf107</em> (<em>P</em> = 1 × 10<sup>−9</sup>), <em>ZNF652</em> (<em>P</em> = 5 × 10<sup>−9</sup>) and <em>PLCD3</em> (<em>P</em> = 1 × 10<sup>−8</sup>) genes. All variants associated with continuous blood pressure were associated with dichotomous hypertension. These associations between common variants and blood pressure and hypertension offer mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and may point to novel targets for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.</p>
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26.
  • Prokopenko, Inga, et al. (författare)
  • Variants in MTNR1B influence fasting glucose levels
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 41:1, s. 77-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify previously unknown genetic loci associated with fasting glucose concentrations, we examined the leading association signals in ten genome-wide association scans involving a total of 36,610 individuals of European descent. Variants in the gene encoding melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) were consistently associated with fasting glucose across all ten studies. The strongest signal was observed at rs10830963, where each G allele (frequency 0.30 in HapMap CEU) was associated with an increase of 0.07 (95% CI = 0.06-0.08) mmol/l in fasting glucose levels (P = 3.2 x 10(-50)) and reduced beta-cell function as measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-B, P = 1.1 x 10(-15)). The same allele was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.09 (1.05-1.12), per G allele P = 3.3 x 10(-7)) in a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies totaling 18,236 cases and 64,453 controls. Our analyses also confirm previous associations of fasting glucose with variants at the G6PC2 (rs560887, P = 1.1 x 10(-57)) and GCK (rs4607517, P = 1.0 x 10(-25)) loci.
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27.
  • Bender, Frida A-M, 1978- (författare)
  • Earth's albedo in a changing climate
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The albedo is a key parameter in the radiative budget of the Earth and a primary determinant of the planetary temperature and is therefore also central to questions regarding climate stability, climate change and climate sensitivity. Climate models and satellite observations are essential for studying the albedo, and the parameters determining it, on large spatial and temporal scales. Although climate models are able to capture the large-scale characteristics of the albedo, a bias is found between modelled and observed global albedo estimates, and on a regional scale particular problematic regions can be identified.</p> <p>Cloud parameters, that are of great importance for determining the albedo, vary widely among models, but lack of observations makes constraining models, and even evaluating models, difficult. The freedom of variability for cloud parameters can be used to make models agree with observations of the better constrained radiative budget. It is shown that tuning a model to different radiative budget estimates by altering cloud parameters can influence the climate sensitivity of the model, but the effect seen is small, compared to the range of climate sensitivities estimated by different models.</p> <p>Despite their different parameterizations of clouds, aerosols etc., models do have fundamental features in common, which can further the understanding of the real climate system. For instance it is found that sensitivity to volcanic forcing is related to climate sensitivity in an ensemble of models. If this relation is valid for the real climate as well, observations of the volcanic sensitivity can help restrict the climate sensitivity.</p> <p>The range of climate sensitivity estimates in models can largely be attributed to variations in cloud response to forcing. It is found that in models with high climate sensitivity changes in cloud cover and cloud reflectivity enhance a positive radiative forcing due to increased CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations, feeding back on the warming and in models with low climate sensitivity, cloud response counteracts the positive radiative forcing and warming induced by the same forcing.</p> <p>As a consequence the total albedo response to increased CO<sub>2</sub> forcing is found to be stronger (more negative) in high sensitivity models and vice versa.</p> <p>Cloud albedo and its variation between different cloud regimes, is important in this regard, yet not well known. A method based on the relation between cloud fraction and albedo is presented, giving a way to estimate regional cloud albedo, primarily for homogeneous cloud regimes, but possibly also extended to a global scale.</p> <p> </p>
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28.
  • Ellis, W. Chadwick, et al. (författare)
  • Design of More Powerful Iron-TAML Peroxidase Enzyme Mimics
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - 0002-7863 .- 1520-5126. ; 131:50, s. 18052-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Environmentally useful, small molecule mimics of the peroxidase enzymes must exhibit very high reactivity in water near neutral pH. Here we describe the design and structural and kinetic characterization of a second generation of iron(III)-TAML activators with unprecedented peroxidase-mimicking abilities. Iterative design has been used to remove the fluorine that led to the best performers in first-generation iron-TAMLs. The result is a superior catalyst that meets a green chemistry objective by being comprised exclusively of biochemically common elements. The rate constants for bleaching at pH 7, 9, and 11 of the model substrate, Orange 11, shows that the new Fe-III-TAML has the fastest reactivity at pH's closer to neutral of any TAML activator to date. Under appropriate conditions, the new catalyst can decolorize Orange 11 without loss of activity for at least 10 half-lives, attesting to its exceptional properties as an oxidizing enzyme mimic.</p>
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29.
  • Goedecke, Julia H, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin response in relation to insulin sensitivity : an appropriate beta-cell response in black South African women.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 32:5, s. 860-855
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize differences in the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(g)) relative to insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in black and white premenopausal normoglycemic South African women matched for body fatness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis including 57 black and white South African women matched for BMI, S(I), AIR(g), and the disposition index (AIR(g) x S(I)) were performed using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis, and similar measures were analyzed using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. RESULTS: S(I) was significantly lower (4.4 +/- 0.8 vs. 9.4 +/- 0.8 and 2.9 +/- 0.8 vs. 6.0 +/- 0. 8 x 10(-5) min(-1)/[pmol/l], P &lt; 0.001) and AIR(g) was significantly higher (1,028 +/- 255 vs. 352 +/- 246 and 1,968 +/- 229 vs. 469 +/- 246 pmol/l, P &lt; 0.001), despite similar body fatness (30.9 +/- 1.4 vs. 29.7 +/- 1.3 and 46.8 +/- 1.2 vs. 44.4 +/- 1.3%) in the normal-weight and obese black women compared with their white counterparts, respectively. Disposition index, a marker of beta-cell function, was not different between ethnic groups (3,811 +/- 538 vs. 2,966 +/- 518 and 3,646 +/- 485 vs. 2,353 +/- 518 x 10(-5) min, P = 0.10). Similar results were obtained for the OGTT-derived measures. CONCLUSIONS: Black South African women are more insulin resistant than their white counterparts but compensate by increasing their insulin response to maintain normal glucose levels, suggesting an appropriate beta-cell response for the level of insulin sensitivity.</p>
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30.
  • Muduli, Pranaba, et al. (författare)
  • Study of magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal using the quadratic magnetooptical effect in epitaxial CoxMnyGez(111) films
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter. - 0953-8984 .- 1361-648X. ; 21:29, s. 296005
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Magnetic anisotropy, magnetization reversal and the magnetooptic Kerr effect in CoxMnyGez have been studied over a range of compositions between 0 and 50 at.% of Ge and between 1 and 3 in the Co to Mn atomic ratio, including the Heusler alloy Co2MnGe. A strong quadratic magnetooptic Kerr effect has been observed within a narrow region of composition centered around the Co to Mn atomic ratio of 2, which has been used to probe and quantify the magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of the system. The anisotropy is sixfold with a weak uniaxial component, and it exhibits sensitive dependence on composition, especially on the atomic ratio between Co and Mn. The magnetization reversal process is consistent with the single-domain Stoner-Wohlfarth model.</p>
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