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Sökning: WFRF:(Dale Anders M.) > (2014)

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  • Holmes, Michael V., et al. (författare)
  • Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease : Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMJ-BRIT MED J. - 1756-1833. ; 349, s. g4164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (-0.88 (-1.19 to -0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (-5.2% (-7.8 to -2.4%)), waist circumference (-0.3 (-0.6 to -0.1) cm), and body mass index (-0.17 (-0.24 to -0.10) kg/m(2)). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P= 0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for cardiovascular health.</p>
  • Friedrich, Jana, et al. (författare)
  • Investigating hypoxia in aquatic environments: diverse approaches to addressing a complex phenomenon
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - 1726-4170. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we provide an overview of newknowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomenain aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7project HYPOX (“In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion inhypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlockedwater bodies”, www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipatedoxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climatechange, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities tomonitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences.Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia wereanalyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, includingthe Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavianfjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swisslakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences ofhypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenationin stratified systems, are discussed. Geologicallydriven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Usingnovel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of watercolumnoxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns tometer-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved.Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used todemonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophicationon long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganicproxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygenconditions to centennial and even longer timescales thatcannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia onfaunal communities and biogeochemical processes were alsoaddressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna ispresented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communitiesthat slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophicationin a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlapswith anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigationsreveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbiallymediated redox cycling of elements. Observationsand modeling studies of the sediments demonstrate the effectof seasonally changing oxygen conditions on benthic mineralizationpathways and fluxes. Data quality and access arecrucial in hypoxia research. Technical issues are thereforealso addressed, including the availability of suitable sensortechnology to resolve the gradual changes in bottom-wateroxygen in marine systems that can be expected as a result ofclimate change. Using cabled observatories as examples, weshow how the benefit of continuous oxygen monitoring canbe maximized by adopting proper quality control. Finally,we discuss strategies for state-of-the-art data archiving anddissemination in compliance with global standards, and howocean observations can contribute to global earth observationattempts.
  • Desikan, Rahul S, et al. (författare)
  • The role of clusterin in amyloid-β-associated neurodegeneration.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - 2168-6157. ; 71:2, s. 180-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Converging evidence indicates that clusterin, a chaperone glycoprotein, influences Alzheimer disease neurodegeneration. However, the precise role of clusterin in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis is still not well understood.
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