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1.
  • Ederle, Joerg, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - Elsevier Science Inc. - 0140-6736. ; 375:9719, s. 985-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006), Risks of any stroke (65 vs 35 events; HR 1.92, 1.27-2.89) and all-cause death (19 vs seven events; HR 2.76, 1.16-6.56) were higher in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group. Three procedural myocardial infarctions were recorded in the stenting group, all of which were fatal, compared with four, all non-fatal, in the endarterectomy group. There was one event of cranial nerve palsy in the stenting group compared with 45 in the endarterectomy group. There were also fewer haematomas of any severity in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (31 vs 50 events; p=0.0197). Interpretation Completion of long-term follow-up is needed to establish the efficacy of carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy. In the meantime, carotid endarterectomy should remain the treatment of choice for patients suitable for surgery.
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2.
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS semiconductor tracker end-cap module
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002. ; 575:3, s. 353-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3.3 mu s buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is 1.4x10(14) cm(-2) in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area similar to 70 cm(2), each having 2 x 768 strips read out by six ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X-0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500e(-) equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800e(-) ENC after irradiation, provides stringent design constraints on both the high-density Cu/Polyimide flex read-out circuit and the ABCD3TA read-out ASICs. Finally, the accuracy of module assembly must not compromise the 16 mu m (r phi) resolution perpendicular to the strip directions or 580 mu m radial resolution coming from the 40 mrad front-back stereo angle. A total of 2210 modules were built to the tight tolerances and specifications required for the SCT. This was 234 more than the 1976 required and represents a yield of 93%. The component flow was at times tight, but the module production rate of 40-50 per week was maintained despite this. The distributed production was not found to be a major logistical problem and it allowed additional flexibility to take advantage of where the effort was available, including any spare capacity, for building the end-cap modules. The collaboration that produced the ATLAS SCT end-cap modules kept in close contact at all times so that the effects of shortages or stoppages at different sites could be rapidly resolved.
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3.
  • Acciari, V. A., et al. (författare)
  • Radio Imaging of the Very-High-Energy gamma-Ray Emission Region in the Central Engine of a Radio Galaxy
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 325:5939, s. 444-448
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 10(12) electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE gamma-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole.
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4.
  • Abadie, J., et al. (författare)
  • Implementation and testing of the first prompt search for gravitational wave transients with electromagnetic counterparts
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - EDP Sciences S A. - 0004-6361. ; 539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec. 17, 2009 to Jan. 8, 2010 and Sep. 2 to Oct. 20, 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW event candidates and to reconstruct maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and Milky Way globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline's ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with similar to 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.
5.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Search for the rare decay B-s(0)->phi mu(+)mu(-) with the D0 detector
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. - 1550-7998. ; 74:3, s. 031107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a search for the flavor-changing neutral current decay B-s(0)->phi mu(+)mu(-) using about 0.45 fb(-1) of data collected in p (p) over bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We find an upper limit on the branching ratio of this decay normalized to B-s(0)-> J/psi phi of B(B-s(0)->phi mu(+)mu(-))/B(B-s(0)-> J/psi phi)< 4.4x10(-3) at the 95% C.L. Using the central value of the world average branching fraction of B-s(0)-> J/psi phi, the limit corresponds to B(B-s(0)->phi mu(+)mu(-))< 4.1x10(-6) at the 95% C.L., the most stringent upper bound to date.
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6.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of beta (t -> Wb)/beta(t -> Wq) at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693. ; 639:6, s. 616-622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the measurement of R = B(t -> Wb)/B(t -> Wq) in pp collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV, using 230 pb(-1) of data collected by the DO experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We fit simultaneously R and the number (N-tt) of selected top quark pairs (tt), to the number of identified b-quark jets in events with one electron or one muon, three or more jets, and high transverse energy imbalance. To improve sensitivity, kinematical properties of events with no identified b-quark jets are included in the fit. We measure R = 1.03(-0.17)(0.19) (stat + syst), in good agreement with the standard model. We set lower limits of R > 0.61 and vertical bar V-tb vertical bar > 0.78 at 95% confidence level.
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7.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the isolated photon cross section in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693. ; 639:3-4, s. 151-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cross section for the inclusive production of isolated photons has been measured in p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV with the DO detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The photons span transverse momenta 23 to 300 GeV and have pseudorapidity vertical bar n vertical bar < 0.9. The cross section is compared with the results from two next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations. The theoretical predictions agree with the measurement within uncertainties.
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8.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Search for a heavy resonance decaying into a Z plus jet final state in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV using the D0 detector
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. - 1550-7998. ; 74:1, s. 011104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have searched for a heavy resonance decaying into a Z+jet final state in p (p) over bar collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using the D0 detector. No indication for such a resonance was found in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 370 pb(-1). We set upper limits on the cross section times branching fraction for heavy resonance production at the 95% C.L. as a function of the resonance mass and width. The limits are interpreted within the framework of a specific model of excited quark production.
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9.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Search for associated Higgs boson production WH -> WWW*-> l(+/-)nu l('+/-)nu(')+X in p(p)over-bar collisions at root S=1.96 TeV
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007. ; 97:15, s. 151804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a search for associated Higgs boson production in the process p (p) over bar -> WH -> WWW*-> l(+/-)nu l('+/-)nu(')+X in final states containing two like-sign isolated electrons or muons (e(+/-)e(+/-), e(+/-)mu(+/-), or mu(+/-)mu(+/-)). The search is based on D0 run II data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 360-380 pb(-1). No excess is observed over the predicted standard model background. We set 95% C.L. upper limits on sigma ->(p (p) over bar WH) x Br(H -> WW*) between 3.2 and 2.8 pb for Higgs boson masses from 115 to 175 GeV.
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10.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Search for neutral Higgs bosons decaying to tau pairs in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007. ; 97:12, s. 121802
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for the production of neutral Higgs bosons Phi decaying into tau(+)tau(-) final states in p (p) over bar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 325 pb(-1), were collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Since no excess compared to the expectation from standard model processes is found, limits on the production cross section times branching ratio are set. The results are combined with those obtained from the D0 search for Phi b((b) over bar)-> b (b) over barb((b) over bar) and are interpreted in the minimal supersymmetric standard model.
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