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Sökning: WFRF:(Dina C) > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215 .- 1369-1600. ; 26:1, s. e12880-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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2.
  • Fazey, Ioan, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science. - : Elsevier. - 2214-6296 .- 2214-6326. ; 70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
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3.
  • Bryois, J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic identification of cell types underlying brain complex traits yields insights into the etiology of Parkinson’s disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 52:5, s. 482-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying brain complex traits. We show that psychiatric disorders are predominantly associated with projecting excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Neurological diseases were associated with different cell types, which is consistent with other lines of evidence. Notably, Parkinson’s disease was genetically associated not only with cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons (which include dopaminergic neurons) but also with enteric neurons and oligodendrocytes. Using post-mortem brain transcriptomic data, we confirmed alterations in these cells, even at the earliest stages of disease progression. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the cellular basis of complex brain maladies, and reveals an unexpected role of oligodendrocytes in Parkinson’s disease. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.
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4.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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5.
  • Bakker, M. K., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysms identifies 17 risk loci and genetic overlap with clinical risk factors
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 52:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits. Cross-ancestry genome-wide association analyses in individuals of European and East Asian ancestry identify 11 new risk loci for intracranial aneurysms and highlight a polygenic architecture explaining a substantial fraction of disease heritability.
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7.
  • Chen, H. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association meta-analysis in 652,134 participants identifies 9 novel susceptibility loci for aortic stenosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 41:Suppl 2, s. 1862-1862
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common form of incident valvular heart disease. While valve replacement is effective, the absence of an approved medical therapy provides no alternatives to patients with contraindications or mild disease. An improved understanding of the genetics of AS could identify targets for pharmacological intervention.Methods: An inverse variance-weighted, fixed effects meta-analysis of the association of 11,591,806 variants with AS was undertaken using data from 10 European cohorts totalling 652,134 participants (13,758 cases of AS). We queried publicly available datasets to characterize the functional consequences of genome-wide significant variants, conducted a phenome-wide association study to assess their association with other outcomes, and constructed polygenic risk scores to examine their association with AS. We also performed gene- and gene-set enrichment analyses, estimated genetic correlation with cardiovascular traits, and assessed whether five lipid or immunological biomarkers were causally associated with AS using Mendelian randomization.Results: Eighteen independent variants at 16 loci attained genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis, including variants at all seven previously reported loci. Many of the significant variants were intronic or intergenic, and the phenome-wide association study revealed extensive pleiotropy with apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein, and other cardiovascular and immunological traits. A weighted polygenic risk score composed of the 18 variants was strongly associated with AS (adjusted OR per SD, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.44; p=4.6×10–57), and improved the discriminatory ability for AS when added to a model that contained clinical risk factors (difference in the area under the curve p=2.0×10–11). Gene-based approaches indicated higher IL6R expression in the blood among AS cases compared to controls (p=3.1×10–6), and the association of LDLR with AS (p=2.3×10–10). Gene set analyses revealed that genes bound by the transcription factor TCF7 or micro-RNAs miR-21, miR-219, miR-491, and miR-19 were differentially expressed in the liver depending on AS status (p≤5.7×10–4), suggesting disease development may be mediated by tissue-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Mendelian randomization supported a causal association of five lipid and immunological biomarkers with AS, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR per mmol/L, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.48 to 1.75; p=1.3×10–30).Conclusions: Evidence from large-scale genetic analyses indicate that lipid metabolism, inflammation, and calcification are key contributors to AS.
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8.
  • Perrot, Nicolas, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and In Vitro Inhibition of PCSK9 and Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JACC: Basic to Translational Science. - : Elsevier Inc.. - 2452-302X. ; 5:7, s. 649-661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors investigated whether PCSK9 inhibition could represent a therapeutic strategy in calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). A meta-analysis of 10 studies was performed to determine the impact of the PCSK9 R46L variant on CAVS, and the authors found that CAVS was less prevalent in carriers of this variant (odds ratio: 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.91]; p = 0.0011) compared with noncarriers. PCSK9 expression was higher in the aortic valves of patients CAVS compared with control patients. In human valve interstitials cells submitted to a pro-osteogenic medium, PCSK9 levels increased and a PCSK9 neutralizing antibody significantly reduced calcium accumulation.
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9.
  • Rubinstein, Yaffa R., et al. (författare)
  • The case for open science : rare diseases
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMIA Open. - 2574-2531. ; 3:3, s. 472-486
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The premise of Open Science is that research and medical management will progress faster if data and knowledge are openly shared. The value of Open Science is nowhere more important and appreciated than in the rare disease (RD) community. Research into RDs has been limited by insufficient patient data and resources, a paucity of trained disease experts, and lack of therapeutics, leading to long delays in diagnosis and treatment. These issues can be ameliorated by following the principles and practices of sharing that are intrinsic to Open Science. Here, we describe how the RD community has adopted the core pillars of Open Science, adding new initiatives to promote care and research for RD patients and, ultimately, for all of medicine. We also present recommendations that can advance Open Science more globally.
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