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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Druid Henrik) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Druid Henrik) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Petersson, A, et al. (författare)
  • Toxicological findings and manner of death in autopsied users of anabolic androgenic steroids
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0046 .- 0376-8716. ; 81:3, s. 241-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the aim to characterize patterns in toxicological profile and manner of death in deceased users of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), a retrospective autopsy protocol study of 52 deceased users of AAS was undertaken. The AAS users were compared to 68 deceased users of amphetamine and/or heroin who were consecutively tested and found to be negative for AAS. Use of AAS was in the majority of cases (79%) associated with concomitant use of psychotropic substances. AAS-related deaths differed in several respects from deaths among users of heroin or amphetamine, most strikingly with regard to: (a) the median age at death, which was significantly lower for AAS users (24.5 years) than for users of heroin and/or amphetamine (34 and 40 years, respectively); (b) the manner of death, with AAS users dying significantly more often from homicide or suicide than users of other drugs; and (c) the body mass index (BMI), with AAS users exhibiting significantly higher BMI than users of other drugs. These results support the earlier reported association between use of AAS and use of other psychoactive substances. In addition, the data suggest that AAS users are more likely to become involved in incidents leading to violent death and have a higher risk of dying at a younger age than users of other drugs. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Bergmann, Olaf, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Renewal in Humans
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203. ; 324:5923, s. 98-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been difficult to establish whether we are limited to the heart muscle cells we are born with or if cardiomyocytes are generated also later in life. We have taken advantage of the integration of carbon-14, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, into DNA to establish the age of cardiomyocytes in humans. We report that cardiomyocytes renew, with a gradual decrease from 1% turning over annually at the age of 25 to 0.45% at the age of 75. Fewer than 50% of cardiomyocytes are exchanged during a normal life span. The capacity to generate cardiomyocytes in the adult human heart suggests that it may be rational to work toward the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at stimulating this process in cardiac pathologies.
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3.
  • Druid, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of the role of abstinence in heroin overdose deaths using segmental hair analysis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 168:2-3, s. 223-226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the body heroin is rapidly metabolized to 6-acetylmorphine and morphine. Victims of lethal heroin overdose often present with fairly low blood concentrations of morphine. Reduced tolerance due to abstinence has been proposed to account for this finding. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of abstinence in drug-related deaths by comparing recent and past exposure to opioids using segmental hair analysis with the postmortem blood morphine concentrations in deceased heroin users. The study included 60 deceased drug addicts in the Stockholm area, Sweden. In 32 cases, death was not related to heroin intake. In 18 of the 28 heroin fatalities, opioids were absent in the most recent hair segment, suggesting a reduced tolerance to opioids. However, the blood morphine levels were similar to those found in the 10 subjects that showed continuous opioid use. Hair and blood analysis disclosed an extensive use of additional drugs that directly or indirectly may influence the opioid system. The results suggest that abstinence is not a critical factor for heroin overdose death. Obviously tolerant subjects die after intake of similar doses. Other factors, particularly polydrug use, seem to be more causally important for these deaths.
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5.
  • Jonsson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Fatal drug poisonings in a Swedish general population.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC clinical pharmacology. - : BioMed Central. - 1472-6904. ; 9:7, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical drug poisonings have previously been reported using single sources of information, either hospital data or forensic data, which might not reveal the true incidence. We therefore aimed to estimate the incidence of suspected fatal drug poisonings, defined as poisonings by pharmaceutical agents, by using all relevant case records from various sources in a Swedish population. METHODS: Every seventh randomly selected deceased in three counties in southeastern Sweden during a one-year period was identified in the Cause of Death Register. Relevant case records (death certificates, files from hospitals and/or primary care centres and medico-legal files) were reviewed for all study subjects. RESULTS: Of 1574 deceased study subjects, 12 cases were classified as pharmaceutical drug poisonings according to the death certificates and 10 according to the medico-legal files. When reviewing all available data sources, 9 subjects (0.57%; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.94%) were classified as drug poisonings, corresponding to an incidence of 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.3-10.7) per 100 000 person-years in the general population. The drug groups most often implicated were benzodiazepines (33%), antihistamines (33%) and analgesics (22%). CONCLUSIONS: Fatal drug poisonings is a relatively common cause of death in Sweden. By using multiple sources of information when investigating the proportion of fatal poisonings in a population, more accurate estimates may be obtained.
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6.
  • Jönsson, Anna, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Cause of death and drug use pattern in deceased drug addicts in Sweden, 2002-2003
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 169:2-3, s. 101-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Compared with their contemporaries, individuals abusing illicit drugs suffer a higher risk of premature death. In Sweden, a simple protocol for registration of fatalities among abusers of alcohol, pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, or other substances, has been used by the forensic pathologists since 2001. This routine was introduced to allow for an evaluation of the cause and manner of death, and patterns of abuse among different groups of abusers. We explored the data on drug abusers (i.e. abusers of illicit drugs) subjected to a forensic autopsy 2002-2003. The Swedish forensic pathologists examined 10,273 dead victims during the study period and 7% (743/10,273) of the cases were classified as drug abusers. Toxicological analyses were carried out in 99% (736/743) and illicit drugs were detected in 70% (514/736) of these. On average, 3.8 substances (legal or illegal) were found per case. The most common substances were ethanol and morphine, detected in 43 and 35% of the cases, respectively. When exploring the importance of the different substances for the cause of death, we found that the detection of some substances, such as fentanyl and morphine, strongly indicated a poisoning, whereas certain other substances, such as benzodiazepines more often were incidental findings. In total, 50% (372/743) died of poisoning, whereas only 22% (161/743) died of natural causes. Death was considered to be directly or indirectly due to drug abuse in 47% (346/743), whereas evidence of drug abuse was an incidental finding in 21% (153/743) or based on case history alone in 33% (244/743). We believe that this strategy to prospectively categorize deaths among drug addicts constitutes a simple means of standardizing the surveillance of the death toll among drug addicts that could allow for comparisons over time and between countries. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Strandberg, Joakim J, et al. (författare)
  • Toxicological analysis in rats subjected to heroin and morphine overdose
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Toxicology Letters. - 0378-4274 .- 1879-3169. ; 166:1, s. 11-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •     In heroin overdose deaths the blood morphine concentration varies substantially. To explore possible pharmacokinetic explanations for variable sensitivity to opiate toxicity we studied mortality and drug concentrations in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of rats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with heroin, 21.5 mg/kg, or morphine, 223 mg/kg, causing a 60–80% mortality among drug-naïve rats. Additional groups of rats were pre-treated with morphine for 14 days, with or without 1 week of subsequent abstinence. Brain, lung and blood samples were analyzed for 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. i.v. morphine administration to drug-naïve rats resulted in both rapid and delayed deaths. The brain morphine concentration conformed to an exponential elimination curve in all samples, ruling out accumulation of morphine as an explanation for delayed deaths. This study found no support for formation of toxic concentration of morphine-6-glucuronide. Spontaneous death among both heroin and morphine rats occurred at fairly uniform brain morphine concentrations. Morphine pre-treatment significantly reduced mortality upon i.v. morphine injection, but the protective effect was less evident upon i.v. heroin challenge. The morphine pre-treatment still afforded some protection after 1 week of abstinence among rats receiving i.v. morphine, whereas rats given i.v. heroin showed similar death rate as drug-naïve rats.
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8.
  • Wester, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions : A population based study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. - Chichester, West Sussex United Kingdom : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0306-5251 .- 1365-2125. ; 65:4, s. 573-579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • What is already known about this subject• Although drugs generally are safe and effective therapies for numerous diseases, adverse drug reactions do occur and may even be fatal.• The incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients has been estimated to be approximately 5%.• In previous studies the incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients has been reported, but the incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions in the general population is largely unknown.What this study adds• Fatal adverse drug reactions account for approximately 3% of all deaths in the general population.• Haemorrhages amount to almost two-thirds of the fatal adverse drug reactions and antithrombotic agents are implicated in more than half of the suspected fatal adverse drug reactions.• Fatal adverse drug reactions are estimated to be the seventh most common cause of death in Sweden. Aims: To determine the incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions (FADRs) in a Swedish population. Methods: Every seventh randomly selected deceased in three counties in South-east Sweden during 1 January 2001–31 December 2001 was identified in the Cause of Death Register. Relevant case records (hospitals and/or primary care centres and medicolegal files) were reviewed to identify suspected drug-related fatalities. Results: Of 1574 deceased study subjects, 49 (3.1%; 95% CI 2.2%, 4.0%) were suspected to have died from FADRs. The most common suspected FADRs were gastrointestinal haemorrhages (n = 18; 37%), central nervous system haemorrhages (n = 14; 29%), cardiovascular disorders (n = 5; 10%), other haemorrhages (n = 4; 8%) and renal dysfunction (n = 3; 6%). The drugs most commonly implicated in FADRs were antithrombotic drugs (n = 31; 63%), followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n = 9; 18%), antidepressants (n = 7; 14%) and cardiovascular drugs (n = 4; 8%). Of all the 639 fatalities in hospital 41 (6.4%; 95% CI 4.5%, 8.3%) were suspected to be due to FADRs. Conclusions: The medical burden of FADRs is significant. Haemorrhages were seen in a majority of the FADRs; antithrombotic agents or NSAIDs were implicated in most of these events. These results suggest that preventive measures should be taken to reduce the number of deaths caused by drugs.
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9.
  • Bergmann, Olaf, et al. (författare)
  • Turnover of Human Cardiomyocytes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Circulation Research. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7330. ; 103:12, s. 1494-1495
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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10.
  • Eriksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • ST-handledarna bör vara vetenskapligt kompetenta
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - Stockholm : Sveriges läkarförbund. - 0023-7205 .- 1652-7518. ; 105:24-25, s. 1817-1817
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Varför särbehandlas vetenskaplig kompetens negativt jämfört med övriga områden som handledarskap, pedagogik, kommunikation och etik? Frågan ställs i detta inlägg om Socialstyrelsens förslag till föreskrifter och allmänna råd om läkarnas specialiseringstjänstgöring. Författningstexten bör justeras så att handledaren är kompetent inom alla områden, uppmanar artikelförfattarna.
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