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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Druid Henrik) srt2:(2010-2014)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Druid Henrik) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Alkass, Kanar, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of radiocarbon, stable isotopes and DNA in teeth to facilitate identification of unknown decedents
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:7, s. e69597-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The characterization of unidentified bodies or suspected human remains is a frequent and important task for forensic investigators. However, any identification method requires clues to the person’s identity to allow for comparisons with missing persons. If such clues are lacking, information about the year of birth, sex and geographic origin of the victim, is particularly helpful to aid in the identification casework and limit the search for possible matches. We present here results of stable isotope analysis of 13C and 18O, and bomb-pulse 14C analyses that can help in the casework. The 14C analysis of enamel provided information of the year of birth with an average absolute error of 1.8±1.3 years. We also found that analysis of enamel and root from the same tooth can be used to determine if the 14C values match the rising or falling part of the bomb-curve. Enamel laydown times can be used to estimate the date of birth of individuals, but here we show that this detour is unnecessary when using a large set of crude 14C data of tooth enamel as a reference. The levels of 13C in tooth enamel were higher in North America than in teeth from Europe and Asia, and Mexican teeth showed even higher levels than those from USA. DNA analysis was performed on 28 teeth, and provided individual-specific profiles in most cases and sex determination in all cases. In conclusion, these analyses can dramatically limit the number of possible matches and hence facilitate person identification work.
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2.
  • Bergmann, Olaf, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiomyocyte Renewal in Humans
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation Research. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7330 .- 1524-4571. ; 110:1, s. 17-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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3.
  • Carlie, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Archaeology, forensics and the death of a child in Late Neolithic Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Antiquity. - 0003-598X .- 1745-1744. ; 88:342, s. 1148-1163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of a child's skeleton in a Late Neolithic well in Sweden raises again the issue of watery rituals and human sacrifice in prehistoric societies. Analysis of diatoms from the right humerus and from the surrounding sediment indicated that the child died by drowning and had not simply been disposed of in the well after death. The scenarios of accidental drowning and murder are examined to account for this discovery. The preferred hypothesis, based on a comparative study of similar finds from north-western Europe, interprets this instead as a ritual sacrifice. The use of diatom analysis to establish drowning as the cause of death adds a new weapon into the armoury of forensic archaeology.
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4.
  • Ernst, Aurélie, et al. (författare)
  • Neurogenesis in the Striatum of the Adult Human Brain
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cell. - Cambridge, MA 02139, USA : Elsevier. - 0092-8674 .- 1097-4172. ; 156:5, s. 1072-1083
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons are added throughout life in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb in most mammals, although humans represent an exception without detectable olfactory bulb neurogenesis. Nevertheless, neuroblasts are generated in the lateral ventricle wall in humans, the neurogenic niche for olfactory bulb neurons in other mammals. We show that, in humans, new neurons integrate adjacent to this neurogenic niche, in the striatum. The neuronal turnover in the striatum appears restricted to interneurons and we show that postnatally generated striatal neurons are preferentially depleted in Huntington’s disease. This demonstrates a unique pattern of neurogenesis in the adult human brain.  
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5.
  • Jönsson, Anna K., et al. (författare)
  • Preventable drug related mortality in a Swedish population
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. - 1053-8569 .- 1099-1557. ; 19:2, s. 211-215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Several studies indicate that the medical burden of fatal adverse drug reactions (FADRs) is significant, but the preventability of FADRs in the general population is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of preventable FADRs and preventable fatal drug poisonings (FDPs) in a Swedish population. METHODS: Previously, a population-based sample of 1574 deceased subjects was scrutinised for FADRs and FDPs using relevant case records, including death certificates, medical charts and medico-legal files. Forty-nine cases (3%) of FADRs and nine cases (0.6%) of FDPs were identified in 57 subjects. In this study, the preventability of all these identified FADRs and FDPs was evaluated by clinical experts in a stepwise manner, applying a set of predefined and well established preventability criteria. Only cases for which consensus was achieved were included in the study. RESULTS: Of 49 FADRs, 14% (seven fatalities) was considered definitely or possibly preventable and four of these were due to the presence of a contraindication for the drug. All nine FDPs were considered possibly preventable. As one subject had a combination of an FADR and an FDP, a total of 15 persons (26%) were considered having a definitely or possibly preventable FADR or FDP, corresponding to 0.95% of all deceased subjects in Sweden. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that approximately one fourth of FADRs and FDPs could be prevented. Therefore, an increased awareness of the possibility to reduce the risk of fatal events due to pharmaceutical drugs is warranted.
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6.
  • Jönsson, Anna K, et al. (författare)
  • Sedative and hypnotic drugs-Fatal and non-fatal reference blood concentrations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - : Elsevier. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 236, s. 138-145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In postmortem investigations of fatal intoxications it is often challenging to determine which drug/s caused the death. To improve the interpretation of postmortem blood concentrations of sedative and hypnotic drugs and/or clonazepam, all medico-legal autopsies in Sweden - where these drugs had been detected in femoral vein blood during 1992-2006 - were identified in the databases of the National Board of Forensic Medicine. For each drug, concentrations in postmortem control cases - where the cause of death was not intoxication and where incapacitation by drugs could be excluded - were compiled as well as the levels found in living subjects; drugged driving cases and therapeutic drug monitoring cases. Subsequently, fatal intoxications were assessed with regards to the primary substances contributing to death, and blood levels were compiled for single and multiple drug intoxications. The postmortem femoral blood levels are reported for 16 sedative and hypnotic drugs, based on findings in 3560 autopsy cases. The cases were classified as single substance intoxications (N = 498), multiple substance intoxications (N = 1555) and postmortem controls (N = 1507). Each autopsy case could be represented more than once in the group of multiple intoxications and among the postmortem controls if more than one of the included substances were detected. The concentration ranges for all groups are provided. Overlap in concentrations between fatal intoxications and reference groups was seen for most substances. However, the concentrations found in single and multiple intoxications were significantly higher than concentrations found in postmortem controls for all substances except alprazolam and triazolam. Concentrations observed among drugged drivers were similar to the concentrations observed among the therapeutic drug monitoring cases. Flunitrazepam was the substance with the highest number of single intoxications, when related to sales. In summary, this study provides reference drug concentrations primarily to be used for improving interpretation of postmortem drug levels in obscure cases, but which also may assist in drug safety work and in pharmacovigilance efforts.
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7.
  • Kronstrand, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • A Cluster of Deaths Involving 5-(2-Aminopropyl)Indole(5-IT)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Analytical Toxicology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy F. - 0146-4760 .- 1945-2403. ; 37:8, s. 542-546
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During 2012, the designer drug 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole emerged in Sweden, and became available at different web sites under the name 5-IT or 5-API. This compound is an indole derivative and a positional isomer of alpha-methyltryptamine. In this paper, we report the pathology and toxicology from 15 deaths involving 5-IT. Routine postmortem toxicology was performed in femoral blood, using a targeted screening for pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse with liquid chromatography time-of-flight technology, and positive results were quantified using chromatographic techniques. For 5-IT, a new method was developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. In 11 cases, intoxication was the cause of death. Two cases were signed out as causa ignota, and they were considered to be natural deaths. All determinations of 5-IT were performed in femoral blood and the concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 18.6 mg/g. Two cases had 5-IT as the only drug identified, while the others presented with other psychotropic drugs or medications in the blood as well. Shortly after this series of deaths, 5-IT was scheduled as a hazardous substance according to the regulation Certain Goods Dangerous to Health on 18 September 2012 prohibiting the handling and selling of the drug. Since then, no positive cases have been found.
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8.
  • Seldén, Tor, et al. (författare)
  • LC-MS-MS analysis of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in whole blood from suspected drug users
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - : Elsevier. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 209:1-3, s. 113-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method is described for the analysis of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in whole blood. Linearity was achieved between 0.2-5 ng/g for buprenorphine and 0.5-5 ng/g for norbuprenorphine. Stability studies on spiked whole blood and an authentic sample showed no degradation of buprenorphine- and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide to their respective aglycones. Buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine showed some degradation when stored at 4 degrees C for three weeks, but was stable when stored at -20 degrees C for 4 weeks. The method was applied to forensic cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and petty drug offences (PDO) during 2007-2009. Out of 2459 cases analyzed, 322 were positive for both buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (13%), 219 for buprenorphine only (9%), and 12 for norbuprenorphine only (0.5%). The mean and median concentrations (N = 322) were 1.7 and 1.0 ng/g, respectively, for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The mean and median norbuprenorphine/buprenorphine ratios were 1.5 and 1.1, respectively. There was no significant difference in concentration ratios for DUID and PDO cases (p andgt; 0.05). We conclude that the described method for analysis of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in whole blood could be used to investigate use or misuse of buprenorphine but that many of the cases presented with very low concentrations of buprenorphine. We also conclude that analysis should be performed within two weeks unless samples are stored frozen prior to analysis.
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9.
  • Seldén, Tor, et al. (författare)
  • Toxicological and pathological findings in a series of buprenorphine related deaths. Possible risk factors for fatal outcome
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - : Elsevier. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 220:1-3, s. 284-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Buprenorphine is considered to have little respiratory side effects at therapeutic doses and the partial agonistic properties should produce a "ceiling effect for respiratory depression at higher doses. Still, there are several reports on buprenorphine related deaths. Most deaths involve drug users and the co-administration of other CNS depressant drugs as well as reduced tolerance have been suggested to be risk factors. The primary aims were to investigate if lack of tolerance and/or co-ingestion of other psychotropic drugs are significant risk factors in buprenorphine fatalities. From July 2005 to September 2009, all autopsy cases where buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine had been detected in femoral blood and where analysis of buprenorphine had been performed in urine were selected. Results from the postmortem examination and toxicology were compiled. Postmortem toxicology was performed using the routine methodology at the laboratory. In total, 97 subjects were included in the study. These were divided into four groups; Intoxication with buprenorphine (N = 41), Possible intoxication with buprenorphine (N = 24), Control cases where buprenorphine was not the cause of death (N = 14), and Unclear (N = 18). The metabolite to parent compound ratios in both blood and urine in the Intoxication group were significantly different from those in the Control and Unclear groups. An extensive poly-drug use was seen in all groups with several additional opioids in the Possible group (54%) and in the Unclear group (78%) and hypnotics or sedatives in more than 75% of the Intoxication, Possible, and Unclear cases. Illicit drugs were present in all groups but not to a great extent with amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol as the main findings. Interestingly, 4 cases in the Intoxication group presented with no other significant drugs in blood other than buprenorphine. We conclude that a lethal concentration of buprenorphine in blood cannot be defined. Instead the analysis of blood as well as urine can be an important tool to show that the drug was taken shortly before death and to rule out a continuous use of buprenorphine supporting the notion that abstinence is an important risk factor. The presence of alprazolam in more than 40% of the Intoxications and the presence of hypnotics and sedatives in 75% of the Intoxications suggests that these drugs interact with buprenorphine producing toxic effects that buprenorphine alone would not have produced. Still, in 10% of the Intoxications no other drugs were found indicating that under certain circumstances buprenorphine alone may produce respiratory depression resulting in death.
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10.
  • Spaulding, Kirsty, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamics of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cell. - Maryland Heights, MO, USA : Elsevier. - 0092-8674 .- 1097-4172. ; 153:6, s. 1219-1227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adult-born hippocampal neurons are important for cognitive plasticity in rodents. There is evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans, although whether its extent is sufficient to have func- tional significance has been questioned. We have assessed the generation of hippocampal cells in humans by measuring the concentration of nuclear- bomb-test-derived 14C in genomic DNA, and we present an integrated model of the cell turnover dy- namics. We found that a large subpopulation of hip- pocampal neurons constituting one-third of the neu- rons is subject to exchange. In adult humans, 700 new neurons are added in each hippocampus per day, corresponding to an annual turnover of 1.75% of the neurons within the renewing fraction, with a modest decline during aging. We conclude that neu- rons are generated throughout adulthood and that the rates are comparable in middle-aged humans and mice, suggesting that adult hippocampal neuro- genesis may contribute to human brain function.
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