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Sökning: WFRF:(Druid Henrik) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Watanabe, Hiroyuki, et al. (författare)
  • Asymmetry of the Endogenous Opioid System in the Human Anterior Cingulate : a Putative Molecular Basis for Lateralization of Emotions and Pain
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - United kingdom. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 25:1, s. 97-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lateralization of processing of positive and negative emotions and pain suggests an asymmetric distribution of the neurotransmitter systems regulating these functions between the left and right brain hemispheres. By virtue of their ability to selectively mediate euphoria, dysphoria and pain, the m-, d- and k-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands may subserve these lateralized functions. We addressed this hypothesis by comparing the levels of the opioid receptors and peptides in the left and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key area for emotion and pain processing. Opioid mRNAs and peptides and five “classical” neurotransmitters were analyzed in postmortem tissues from 20 human subjects. Leu-enkephalin-Arg and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe, preferential d-/m- and k-/m-opioid agonists demonstrated marked lateralization to the left and right ACC, respectively. Dynorphin B strongly correlated with Leu-enkephalin-Arg in the left but not right ACC suggesting different mechanisms of conversion of this k-opioid agonist to d-/m-opioid ligand in the two hemispheres; in the right ACC dynorphin B may be cleaved by PACE4, a proprotein convertase regulating left-right asymmetry formation. These findings suggest that region-specific lateralization of neuronal networks expressing opioid peptides underlyes in part lateralization of higher functions including positive and negative emotions and pain in the human brain.
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2.
  • Bergmann, Olaf, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamics of Cell Generation and Turnover in the Human Heart.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cell. - : Cell Press. - 1097-4172 .- 0092-8674. ; 161:7, s. 1566-1575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The contribution of cell generation to physiological heart growth and maintenance in humans has been difficult to establish and has remained controversial. We report that the full complement of cardiomyocytes is established perinataly and remains stable over the human lifespan, whereas the numbers of both endothelial and mesenchymal cells increase substantially from birth to early adulthood. Analysis of the integration of nuclear bomb test-derived (14)C revealed a high turnover rate of endothelial cells throughout life (>15% per year) and more limited renewal of mesenchymal cells (<4% per year in adulthood). Cardiomyocyte exchange is highest in early childhood and decreases gradually throughout life to <1% per year in adulthood, with similar turnover rates in the major subdivisions of the myocardium. We provide an integrated model of cell generation and turnover in the human heart. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
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3.
  • Brooke, Hannah Louise, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish cause of death register
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : SPRINGER. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 32:9, s. 765-773
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sweden has a long tradition of recording cause of death data. The Swedish cause of death register is a high quality virtually complete register of all deaths in Sweden since 1952. Although originally created for official statistics, it is a highly important data source for medical research since it can be linked to many other national registers, which contain data on social and health factors in the Swedish population. For the appropriate use of this register, it is fundamental to understand its origins and composition. In this paper we describe the origins and composition of the Swedish cause of death register, set out the key strengths and weaknesses of the register, and present the main causes of death across age groups and over time in Sweden. This paper provides a guide and reference to individuals and organisations interested in data from the Swedish cause of death register.
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4.
  • Gudmannsson, Petur, et al. (författare)
  • A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0022-1198 .- 1556-4029. ; 63:2, s. 622-625
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause.
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5.
  • Guerrieri, Davide, et al. (författare)
  • Postmortem and Toxicological Findings in a Series of Furanylfentanyl-Related Deaths
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Analytical Toxicology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0146-4760 .- 1945-2403. ; 41:3, s. 242-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the course of 4 months in 2015 and 2016, a cluster of seven fatal intoxications involving the opioid-analogue furanylfentanyl occurred in Sweden; toxicological analysis showed presence of furanylfentanyl either as the only drug or in combination with other illicit substances. Previous publications have only reported non-lethal furanylfentanyl intoxications. In the cases presented here, furanylfentanyl intoxication-alone or in combination with other drugs-was determined to be the cause of death by the responsible pathologist. All victims were young (24-37 years old) males, five of which had a well-documented history of drug abuse. Femoral blood concentration of furanylfentanyl ranged from 0.41 ng/g to 2.47 ng/g blood. Five cases presented a complex panel of drugs of abuse and prescription drugs. Moreover, in five cases the concurrent presence of pregabalin corroborates previous observations indicating pregabalin as a possible contributing factor in polydrug intoxications. We conclude that it is difficult to establish a specific lethal concentration of furanylfentanyl, due to incompletely known effects of possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with other drugs, as well as to the unknown degree of tolerance to opioids. We suggest that a full toxicological screening-to assess the possibility of drug interactions-together with segmental hair analysis regarding opioids-to estimate the level of opioid tolerance-be carried out to assist in the interpretation of cases involving synthetic opioids such as furanylfentanyl.
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6.
  • Kononenko, Olga, et al. (författare)
  • Opioid precursor protein isoform is targeted to the cell nuclei in the human brain
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. - : Elsevier. - 0006-3002 .- 1878-2434. ; 1861:2, s. 246-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide precursors are traditionally viewed as proteins giving rise to small neuropeptide molecules. Prodynorphin (PDYN) is the precursor protein to dynorphins, endogenous ligands for the κ-opioid receptor. Alternative mRNA splicing of neuropeptide genes may regulate cell- and tissue-specific neuropeptide expression and produce novel protein isoforms. We here searched for novel PDYN mRNA and their protein product in the human brain.METHODS: Novel PDYN transcripts were identified using nested PCR amplification of oligo(dT) selected full-length capped mRNA. Gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR, PDYN protein by western blotting and confocal imaging, dynorphin peptides by radioimmunoassay. Neuronal nuclei were isolated using fluorescence-activated nuclei sorting (FANS) from postmortem human striatal tissue. Immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy was performed for human caudate nucleus.RESULTS: Two novel human PDYN mRNA splicing variants were identified. Expression of one of them was confined to the striatum where its levels constituted up to 30% of total PDYN mRNA. This transcript may be translated into ∆SP-PDYN protein lacking 13 N-terminal amino acids, a fragment of signal peptide (SP). ∆SP-PDYN was not processed to mature dynorphins and surprisingly, was targeted to the cell nuclei in a model cellular system. The endogenous PDYN protein was identified in the cell nuclei in human striatum by western blotting of isolated neuronal nuclei, and by confocal imaging.CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: High levels of alternatively spliced ∆SP-PDYN mRNA and nuclear localization of PDYN protein suggests a nuclear function for this isoform of the opioid peptide precursor in human striatum.
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7.
  • Reu, Pedro, et al. (författare)
  • The Lifespan and Turnover of Microglia in the Human Brain
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cell reports. - Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - 2211-1247 .- 2211-1247. ; 20:4, s. 779-784
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hematopoietic system seeds the CNS with microglial progenitor cells during the fetal period, but the subsequent cell generation dynamics and maintenance of this population have been poorly understood. We report that microglia, unlike most other hematopoietic lineages, renew slowly at a median rate of 28% per year, and some microglia last for more than two decades. Furthermore, we find no evidence for the existence of a substantial population of quiescent long-lived cells, meaning that the microglia population in the human brain is sustained by continuous slow turnover throughout adult life.
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8.
  • Spalding, Kirsty L., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of fat mass and distribution on lipid turnover in human adipose tissue
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Differences in white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid turnover between the visceral (vWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots may cause metabolic complications in obesity. Here we compare triglyceride age and, thereby, triglyceride turnover in vWAT and sWAT biopsies from 346 individuals and find that subcutaneous triglyceride age and storage capacity are increased in overweight or obese individuals. Visceral triglyceride age is only increased in excessively obese individuals and associated with a lower lipid removal capacity. Thus, although triglyceride storage capacity in sWAT is higher than in vWAT, the former plateaus at substantially lower levels of excess WAT mass than vWAT. In individuals with central or visceral obesity, lipid turnover is selectively increased in vWAT. Obese individuals classified as 'metabolically unhealthy' (according to ATPIII criteria) who have small subcutaneous adipocytes exhibit reduced triglyceride turnover. We conclude that excess WAT results in depot-specific differences in lipid turnover and increased turnover in vWAT and/or decreased turnover in sWAT may result in metabolic complications of overweight or obesity.
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9.
  • Walz, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • Metformin - Postmortem fatal and non-fatal reference concentrations in femoral blood and risk factors associated with fatal intoxications
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background amp; objectives: To improve the interpretation of fatal intoxications by establishing fatal and non-fatal reference concentrations of metformin in postmortem femoral blood and to further evaluate risk factors associated with fatal metformin intoxication. Methods: All forensic autopsies in Sweden where metformin was detected in femoral blood 2011-2016 were identified in the National Board of Forensic Medicine databases (NFMD). The cases were classified as single substance intoxications, A (n = 22), multiple substance intoxications, B (N = 7) and postmortem controls, C (N = 13). The control group consisted of cases where metformin was detected, but the cause of death excluded the incapacitation by metformin or other substances. Strict inclusion criteria were used, and all postmortem cases were assessed by two independent reviewers. All other cases where the inclusion criteria of groups A-C where not met formed group O (N = 78). The forensic findings logged in the NFMD where linked to national registers whereby information on comorbidities, dispensed drugs and clinical data could be obtained. Results: The mean age was 66 +/- 10 years in the total study population and did not differ between the groups. The proportion of men was 64% in group A, 71% in B, 77% in C and 74% in group O. The median values of metformin in group A (48.5 mu g/g; range 13.0-210 mu g/g) and B (21.0 mu g/g; range 4.40-95.0 mu g/g) were significantly (p amp;lt; 0.001 and p = 0.015 respectively) higher than those of the control group C (2.30 mu g/g; range 0.70-21.0 mu g/g). The median concentration of metformin in group A and B was also significantly higher than in group O (4.60 mg/g; range 0.64-54.0 mu g/g) (p amp;lt; 0.001 and p = 0.040 respectively). The results suggest that intoxication with metformin as a cause of death should be considered when the postmortem femoral blood level exceeds about 10 mg/g, although higher levels may be seen in postmortem in cases without incapacitation. The metformin intoxication was confirmed to be intentional in 23% (n = 5) of the single intoxications. Underlying factors identified as important for the remaining fatal metformin intoxications included living alone, any contraindication for the use of metformin, known alcohol abuse and a history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: The reported post mortem femoral blood concentrations of metformin can hopefully contribute to a better interpretation of results in suspected poisonings and obscure cases. Living in a single household, history of cardiovascular disease and contraindications, predominantly alcohol abuse, were associated with fatal metformin intoxication. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Walz, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors for Fatal Hyperglycaemia Confirmed by Forensic Postmortem Examination - A Nationwide Cohort in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 11:10, s. e0164950-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. Methods A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem. The forensic findings stored in the National Forensic Medicine Database were linked to nationwide registers. Cases that died due to confirmed hyperglycemia with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were identified and living controls with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were randomly selected in the Swedish prescribed drug register and matched on age and sex. Information on comorbidities, dispensed pharmaceuticals, clinical data and socioeconomic factors were obtained for cases and controls. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with fatal hyperglycaemia. Results During the study period 322 individuals, mostly males (79%) with the mean age of 53.9 years (SD. +/- 14) died due to confirmed hyperglycaemia. Risk factors for fatal hyperglycaemia included; insulin treatment (OR = 4.40; 95% CI, 1.96, 9.85), poor glycaemic control (OR = 2.00 95% CI, 1.23, 3.27), inadequate refill-adherence before death (OR = 3.87; 95% CI, 1.99, 7.53), microvascular disease (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.84, 5.79), psychiatric illness (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.32, 4.01), substance abuse (OR = 8.85; 95% CI, 2.34, 35.0) and/or living alone (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.21, 4.18). Conclusions/ Interpretation Our results demonstrate the importance of clinical attention to poor glycaemic control in subjects with psychosocial problems since it may indicate serious non-adherence, which consequently could lead to fatal hyperglycaemia.
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