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Sökning: WFRF:(Dupuy E.)

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3.
  • Carleer, M. R., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of water vapour profiles from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion: An Interactive Open Access Journal of the European Geosciences Union. ; 8:2, s. 4499-4559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Water vapour (H2O), one of the most important molecules for climate and atmospheric chemistry, is one of the key species provided by the two principal instruments, the infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the MAESTRO UV-Visible spectrometer (ACE-MAESTRO). The first instrument performs measurements on several lines in the 1362–2137 cm−1 range, from which vertically resolved H2O concentration profiles are retrieved, from 7 to 90 km altitude. ACE-MAESTRO measures profiles using the water absorption band in the near infrared part of the spectrum at 926.0–969.7 nm. This paper presents a comprehensive validation of the ACE-FTS profiles. We have compared the H2O volume mixing ratio profiles with space-borne (SAGE II, HALOE, POAM III, MIPAS, SMR) observations and measurements from balloon-borne frostpoint hygrometers and a ground based lidar. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide H2O profiles with small retrieval uncertainties in the stratosphere (better than 5% from 15 to 70 km, gradually increasing above). The situation is unclear in the upper troposphere, due mainly to the high variability of the water vapour volume mixing ratio in this region. A new water vapour data product from the ACE-MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) is also presented and initial comparisons with ACE-FTS are discussed.
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4.
  • Clerbaux, C., et al. (författare)
  • CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 2569-2594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO), a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006). We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane) observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES) as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS) were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above). These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km), than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km), and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.
5.
  • Kasai, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone observed by SMILES from International Space Station
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - Copernicus GmbH. - 1867-1381. ; 6:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We observed ozone (O3) in the vertical region between 250 and 0.0005 hPa (~ 12–96 km) using the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) between 12 October 2009 and 21 April 2010. The new 4 K superconducting heterodyne receiver technology of SMILES allowed us to obtain a one order of magnitude better signal-to-noise ratio for the O3 line observation compared to past spaceborne microwave instruments. The non-sun-synchronous orbit of the ISS allowed us to observe O3 at various local times. We assessed the quality of the vertical profiles of O3 in the 100–0.001 hPa (~ 16–90 km) region for the SMILES NICT Level 2 product version 2.1.5. The evaluation is based on four components: error analysis; internal comparisons of observations targeting three different instrumental setups for the same O3 625.371 GHz transition; internal comparisons of two different retrieval algorithms; and external comparisons for various local times with ozonesonde, satellite and balloon observations (ENVISAT/MIPAS, SCISAT/ACE-FTS, Odin/OSIRIS, Odin/SMR, Aura/MLS, TELIS). SMILES O3 data have an estimated absolute accuracy of better than 0.3 ppmv (3%) with a vertical resolution of 3–4 km over the 60 to 8 hPa range. The random error for a single measurement is better than the estimated systematic error, being less than 1, 2, and 7%, in the 40–1, 80–0.1, and 100–0.004 hPa pressure regions, respectively. SMILES O3 abundance was 10–20% lower than all other satellite measurements at 8–0.1 hPa due to an error arising from uncertainties of the tangent point information and the gain calibration for the intensity of the spectrum. SMILES O3 from observation frequency Band-B had better accuracy than that from Band-A. A two month period is required to accumulate measurements covering 24 h in local time of O3 profile. However such a dataset can also contain variation due to dynamical, seasonal, and latitudinal effects
6.
  • Strong, K., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 4759-4786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also known as SCISAT, was launched on 12 August 2003, carrying two instruments that measure vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents using the solar occultation technique. One of these instruments, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), is measuring volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at a vertical resolution of about 3–4 km. In this study, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 N2O data is assessed through comparisons with coincident measurements made by other satellite, balloon-borne, aircraft, and ground-based instruments. These consist of vertical profile comparisons with the SMR, MLS, and MIPAS satellite instruments, multiple aircraft flights of ASUR, and single balloon flights of SPIRALE and FIRS-2, and partial column comparisons with a network of ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers (FTIRs). Between 6 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons lie between −42 ppbv and +17 ppbv, with most within ±20 ppbv. This corresponds to relative deviations from the mean that are within ±15%, except for comparisons with MIPAS near 30 km, for which they are as large as 22.5%. Between 18 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons are generally within ±10 ppbv. From 30 to 60 km, the mean absolute differences are within ±4 ppbv, and are mostly between −2 and +1 ppbv. Given the small N2O VMR in this region, the relative deviations from the mean are therefore large at these altitudes, with most suggesting a negative bias in the ACE-FTS data between 30 and 50 km. In the comparisons with the FTIRs, the mean relative differences between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns (which cover a mean altitude range of 14 to 27 km) are within ±5.6% for eleven of the twelve contributing stations. This mean relative difference is negative at ten stations, suggesting a small negative bias in the ACE-FTS partial columns over the altitude regions compared. Excellent correlation (R=0.964) is observed between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns, with a slope of 1.01 and an intercept of −0.20 on the line fitted to the data.
7.
  • Ballantyne, Kaye N., et al. (författare)
  • Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - Wiley. - 1059-7794. ; 35:8, s. 1021-1032
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Relevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve individuals and populations completely. Here, 52 centers generated quality-controlled data of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in 14,644 related and unrelated males from 111 worldwide populations. Strikingly, greater than99% of the 12,272 unrelated males were completely individualized. Haplotype diversity was extremely high (global: 0.9999985, regional: 0.99836-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% nonunique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups (14.3%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed 99.98% of variation within populations, 0.018% among populations within groups, and 0.002% among groups. Of the 2,372 newly and 156 previously typed male relative pairs, 29% were differentiated including 27% of the 2,378 father-son pairs. Relative to Yfiler, haplotype diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RMY-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database.
8.
  • Barret, B., et al. (författare)
  • Intercomparisons of trace gases profiles from the Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS limb sounders
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 111:D21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the intercomparison of O(3), HNO(3), ClO, N(2)O and CO profiles measured by the two spaceborne microwave instruments MLS ( Microwave Limb Sounder) and SMR ( Submillimetre Radiometer) on board the Aura and Odin satellites, respectively. We compared version 1.5 level 2 data from MLS with level 2 data produced by the French data processor version 222 and 225 and by the Swedish data processor version 2.0 for several days in September 2004 and in March 2005. For the five gases studied, an overall good agreement is found between both instruments. Most of the observed discrepancies between SMR and MLS are consistent with results from other intercomparison studies involving MLS or SMR. O(3) profiles retrieved from the SMR 501.8 GHz band are noisier than MLS profiles but mean biases between both instruments do not exceed 10%. SMR HNO(3) profiles are biased low relative to MLS's by similar to 30% above the profile peak. In the lower stratosphere, MLS ClO profiles are biased low by up to 0.3 ppbv relative to coincident SMR profiles, except in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex in the presence of chlorine activation. N(2)O profiles from both instruments are in very good agreement with mean biases not exceeding 15%. Finally, the intercomparison between SMR and MLS CO profiles has shown a good agreement from the middle stratosphere to the middle mesosphere in spite of strong oscillations in the MLS profiles. In the upper mesosphere, MLS CO concentrations are biased high relative to SMR while negative values in the MLS retrievals are responsible for a negative bias in the tropics around 30 hPa.
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9.
  • Berthet, G., et al. (författare)
  • Nighttime chlorine monoxide observations by the Odin satellite and implications for the ClO/Cl2O2 equilibrium
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276. ; 32:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We use measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) by the SMR instrument onboard the Odin satellite to study the nighttime thermal equilibrium between ClO and its dimer Cl2O2. Observations performed in the polar vortex during the 2002-2003 Arctic winter showed enhanced amounts of nighttime ClO over a wide range of stratospheric temperatures (185 < T < 225 K). Odin/SMR measurements are here compared to three-dimensional model calculations using various published estimations of the K-eq equilibrium constant between ClO and Cl2O2. Our results show that the value of K-eq currently recommended by JPL (Sander et al., 2003) leads to a large underestimation of the observed nighttime ClO amounts, and that a realistic estimation of K-eq must lie between the values determined by Cox and Hayman (1988) and Von Hobe et al. (2005).
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10.
  • Dupuy, E., et al. (författare)
  • Strato-mesospheric Measurements of Carbon Monoxide with the Odin Sub-millimetre Radiometer: Retrieval and First Results
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276. ; 31:20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) aboard the Odin satellite has been measuring vertical profiles of atmospheric trace gases since August 2001. We present the inversion methodology developed for CO measurements and the first retrieval results. CO can be retrieved from a single scan measurement throughout the middle atmosphere, with a typical resolution of similar to3 km and a relative error of similar to10% to similar to25%. Retrieval results are evaluated through comparison with data from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and observations of the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) on board the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). Considering the large natural variability of CO, the SMR retrievals give good confirmation of the WACCM results, with an overall agreement within a factor of 2. ISAMS abundances are higher than SMR mixing ratios by a factor of 5-10 above 0.5 hPa from similar to80degreesS to similar to50degreesN.
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