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Sökning: WFRF:(Durevall Dick 1954 ) > (2005-2009)

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  • Bigsten, Arne, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Offshoring and Occupational Wages: Some empirical evidence
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Offshoring has changed the pattern of international competition; labor in specific occupations rather than whole firms and sectors are now facing competition. Accordingly, wages in offshorable occupations are affected in new ways. In this paper we investigate the effects of offshoring of electronically traded services on relative occupational wages in 13 countries in the 1990-2003 period. Our findings show that increased exports of IT-related services lead to higher relative wages in offshorable occupations, whereas increased imports of such service reduce them. There is also some evidence that the impact of offshoring on relative wages is larger the lower the level GDP per capita.
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  • Durevall, Dick, 1954- (författare)
  • Demand for Coffee: The Role of Prices, Preferences and Market Power
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of prices in determining demand for roasted coffee in Sweden. This is of interest because many believe that consumer prices are high relative to green coffee-bean prices, and that lower consumer prices would increase demand for coffee beans. Coffee demand is estimated on data for the period 1968-2002. In the long run, changing preferences appear to determine demand for roasted coffee, and a reduction in consumer prices would only have a temporary impact on consumption. Hence a permanent decrease in consumer prices would only increase exports of coffee beans to Sweden for a couple of years.
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  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Economic Inequality and HIV in Malawi
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To analyze if the spread of HIV is related to economic inequality we estimate multilevel models of the individual probability of HIV infection among young Malawian women. We find a positive association between HIV infection and inequality at both the neighborhood and district levels, but no effect of individual poverty. We also find that the HIV-inequality relationship is related to risky sex, gender violence, and return migration, though no variable completely replaces economic inequality as a predictor of HIV infections. The HIV-inequality relationship does not seem to be related to bad health, gender gaps in education or women’s market work.
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  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • HIV/AIDS, Adult Mortality and Fertility: Evidence from Malawi
  • 2007
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of HIV/AIDS on fertility in Malawi. The future course of fertility will have an impact on both macroeconomic variables, such as GDP per capita, and various socioeconomic factors like mother-to-child-transmission of HIV, child mortality, the number of orphans, and public expenditures on schooling. Data on both prime-age adult mortality and HIV prevalence rates at districts level are used to measure the impact of HIV/AIDS, exploiting the large geographical variation in the distribution of HIV/AIDS in Malawi. Fertility is estimated for individual women, and measured as the number of births given during the last five years. Estimations are also carried out for the desired number of children. The major finding is that HIV/AIDS reduces fertility. Uninfected women both give birth to and desire to have fewer children in districts where prime-age adult mortality and HIV-prevalence are high, and vice versa. However, for young women, aged 15-19, there is a positive relationship between fertility and prime-age adult mortality and HIV prevalence, possibly because they wish to have children while being uninfected. This is likely to have negative effects on both educational attainment and child mortality. As also shown by previous studies, HIV-infected women give birth to fewer children than uninfected women. This is probably due to changed fertility preferences, as well as to physiological factors.
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  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • How Does HIV/AIDS Affect Fertility? Evidence from Malawi
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The paper analyses how communal HIV/AIDS in rural Malawi impacts on fertility. Ordered probit models are estimated using individual data on actual fertility and the ideal number of children from the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. The survey includes tests of HIV status, making it possible to distinguish between behavioural and physiological effects. The main indicator of communal HIV/AIDS is district prime-age mortality rates, obtained from the 1998 Population Census. The paper first address the question of the overall behavioural fertility response due to the epidemic, and then tests for differences in responses due to genderspecific district mortality and HIV rates, knowledge about mother-to-child HIV transmission, and age. The main findings are: HIV/AIDS has a negative but small impact on fertility; responses differ depending on genderspecific district mortality and HIV rates, actual fertility and women’s ideal number of children are more negatively affected by HIV/AIDS among women than among men; and a woman’s knowledge about mother-tochild transmission of HIV and age are important determinants of her fertility response to the disease.
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