SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Durevall Dick 1954 ) srt2:(2015-2019)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Durevall Dick 1954 ) > (2015-2019)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 16
  • [1]2Nästa
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Adult Mortality, AIDS, and Fertility in Rural Malawi
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Developing Economies. - 0012-1533 .- 1746-1049. ; 54:3, s. 215-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The future course of fertility is a major determinant of economic development in many sub-Saharan countries, so understanding how HIV/AIDS affects childbearing is of great interest. We show that fertility responds negatively to female mortality and positively to male mortality and that the overall fertility response is small. The negative effect of female mortality is in line with earlier studies that only focus on women and their infection and mortality risks, while the finding of a positive effect of adult-male mortality is novel. One interpretation of this finding is that women who perceive a high risk of their husbands’ or grown-up sons’ deaths are likely to want to have more children to ensure future support.
  •  
2.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954- (författare)
  • Are Fairtrade Prices Fair? An Analysis of the Distribution of Returns in the Swedish Coffee Market
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Consumers pay a premium for Fair Trade coffee, often assuming that it mainly benefits poor coffee farmers. However, several studies report that most of the premium accrues to actors in the consumer countries, such as roasters and retailers. This paper analyses how the returns to Fair Trade are distributed among bean producer countries, roasters and retailers, and Fairtrade Sweden, using scanner data on 185 products from Sweden and information about costs of production. The distribution depends on how much more costly it is to produce Fair Trade coffee compared to conventional coffee, given costs of beans and licences. Assuming the difference is 5 SEK per kg (about USD 0.80), which is on the high side, roasters and retailers get 61%, while producer countries, i.e., coffee farmers, cooperatives, middlemen, exporters and Fairtrade International, get 31%. The rest accrues to Fairtrade Sweden. These estimates are uncertain, but there is there strong evidence that Fair Trade retail prices are higher than the level attributable to the costs of Fair Trade beans and licences.
  •  
3.
  •  
4.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954- (författare)
  • Cost Pass-Through in the Swedish Coffee Market
  • 2017
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cost pass-through to retail prices shows how changes in marginal costs are allocated between producers and consumers, and it is therefore closely related to market structure and competition. This paper uses Swedish data on coffee products at the barcode level to evaluate pass-through from the cost of green coffee beans, the main marginal cost, to the retail price of roasted and ground coffee. First long-run cost pass-through is estimated for each product, and then regression is used to analyse how pass-through varies across market shares, retailer-owned brands and other product characteristics. A general result is that pass-through is roughly complete for products with large market shares, while those with small market shares have low pass-through rates. There is no evidence that retailer-owned brands have higher pass-through than brand-name products with similar market shares, which would be the case if retailer-owned brands avoided double marginalization through vertical integration. Thus, although there is not perfect competition in the Swedish coffee market, a large part of it appears to be highly competitive.
  •  
5.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954- (författare)
  • Cost pass-through in the Swedish coffee market
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Review of Agricultural Economics. - 0165-1587. ; 45:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cost pass-through to retail prices shows how changes in marginal costs are allocated between producers and consumers, and it is, therefore, closely related to market structure and competition. This paper uses Swedish data on coffee products at the barcode level to evaluate pass-through from the cost of green coffee beans, the main marginal cost, to the retail price of roasted and ground coffee. First long-run cost pass-through is estimated for each product, and then regression is used to analyse how pass-through varies across market shares, retailer-owned brands and other product characteristics. A general result is that pass-through is roughly complete for products with large market shares, while those with small market shares have low pass-through rates. There is no evidence that retailer-owned brands have higher pass-through than brand-name products with similar market shares, which would be the case if retailer-owned brands avoided double marginalisation through vertical integration. Thus, although there is not perfect competition in the Swedish coffee market, a large part of it appears to be highly competitive.
  •  
6.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Education and HIV incidence among young women: causation or selection?
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Several studies report that schooling protects against HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the effect of secondary school attendance on the probability of HIV incidence among young women aged 15-24, using panel data from rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Three approaches are used to distinguish causation from selection: instrumentation to identify the causal effect, a fixed effects model to control for constant unobserved factors and assessments of the bias from selection on unobserved variables. Although there is a strong negative association between secondary school attendance and HIV incidence, we are not able to find support for a causal effect. Thus, there is no evidence that interventions that increase secondary school attendance in KwaZulu-Natal would mechanically reduce HIV risk for young women. Our focus on school attendance, in contrast to studies that analyze school attainment, might explain the negative finding.
  •  
7.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Education and HIV incidence among young women in KwaZulu-Natal: An association but no evidence of a causal protective effect
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 19326203. ; 14:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examine the relationship between school attendance and HIV incidence among young women in South Africa. Our aim is to distinguish a causal effect from correlation. Towards this end, we apply three methods to population-based longitudinal data for 2005-2012 in KwaZulu-Natal. After establishing a negative association, we first use a method that assesses the influence of omitted variables. We then estimate models with exclusion restrictions to remove endogeneity bias, and finally we estimate models that control for unobserved factors that remain constant over time. All the three methods have strengths and weaknesses, but none of them suggests a causal effect. Thus, interventions that increase school attendance in KwaZulu-Natal would probably not mechanically reduce HIV risk for young women. Although the impact of school attendance could vary depending on context, unobserved variables are likely to be an important reason for the common finding of a negative association between school attendance and HIV incidence in the literature.
  •  
8.
  •  
9.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Importing High Food Prices by Exporting: Rice Prices in Lao PDR
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural Economics. - 0021-857X .- 1477-9552. ; 68:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lao PDR has extensive export controls on its staple food, glutinous rice, which keep domestic prices low relative to international prices. Using price, harvest, and export data this paper analyses how glutinous rice prices in Laos PDR are related to those in its trading partners, Thailand and Vietnam. We find that rice prices in Lao PDR are more likely to rise following a good harvest year than a bad or a normal year. This is consistent with export controls being relaxed after good harvests, leading to an increase in exports early in the season and rising prices later as stocks are depleted. There is thus a case for removal of trade restrictions since they give rise to price spikes while keeping the long-term price of glutinous rice low, and thereby hinder increases in income from agriculture. However, since high rice prices are likely to affect the poor negatively in the short to medium term, a combination of an export tax and cash transfers is recommended during the transition period. Although this is a case study of Lao PDR, the findings may equally apply to other developing countries that export their staple food.
  •  
10.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Intimate partner violence and HIV in ten sub-Saharan African countries: what do the Demographic and Health Surveys tell us?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Global Health. - 2214-109X. ; 3:1, s. E34-E43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Many studies have identified a significant positive relation between intimate partner violence and HIV in women, but adjusted analyses have produced inconsistent results. We systematically assessed the association, and under what condition it holds, using nationally representative data from ten sub-Saharan African countries, focusing on physical, sexual, and emotional violence, and on the role of male controlling behaviour. Methods We assessed cross-sectional data from 12 Demographic and Health Surveys from ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The data are nationally representative for women aged 15–49 years. We estimated odds ratios using logistic regression with and without controls for demographic and socioeconomic factors and survey–region fixed effects. Exposure was measured using physical, sexual, emotional violence, and male controlling behaviour, and combinations of these. The samples used were ever-married women, married women, and women in their first union. Depending on specification, the sample size varied between 11 231 and 45 550 women. Findings There were consistent and strong associations between HIV infection in women and physical violence, emotional violence, and male controlling behaviour (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1·2 to 1·7; p values ranged from <0·0001 to 0·0058). The evidence for an association between sexual violence and HIV was weaker and only significant in the sample with women in their first union. The associations were dependent on the presence of controlling behaviour and a high regional HIV prevalence rate; when women were exposed to only physical, sexual, or emotional violence, and no controlling behaviour, or when HIV prevalence rates are lower than 5%, the adjusted odds ratios were, in general, close to 1 and insignificant. Interpretation The findings indicate that male controlling behaviour in its own right, or as an indicator of ongoing or severe violence, puts women at risk of HIV infection. HIV prevention interventions should focus on high-prevalence areas and men with controlling behaviour, in addition to violence. Funding Swedish National Science Foundation and Gothenburg Centre of Globalization and Development, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 16
  • [1]2Nästa
 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy