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Sökning: WFRF:(Egberts K) > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215 .- 1369-1600. ; 26:1, s. e12880-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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2.
  • Bryois, J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic identification of cell types underlying brain complex traits yields insights into the etiology of Parkinson’s disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 52:5, s. 482-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying brain complex traits. We show that psychiatric disorders are predominantly associated with projecting excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Neurological diseases were associated with different cell types, which is consistent with other lines of evidence. Notably, Parkinson’s disease was genetically associated not only with cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons (which include dopaminergic neurons) but also with enteric neurons and oligodendrocytes. Using post-mortem brain transcriptomic data, we confirmed alterations in these cells, even at the earliest stages of disease progression. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the cellular basis of complex brain maladies, and reveals an unexpected role of oligodendrocytes in Parkinson’s disease. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.
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3.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Simultaneous observations of the blazar PKS 2155-304 from ultra-violet to TeV energies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 639, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we report the results of the first ever contemporaneous multi-wavelength observation campaign on the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 involving Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi-LAT, and H.E.S.S. The use of these instruments allows us to cover a broad energy range, which is important for disentangling the different radiative mechanisms. The source, observed from June 2013 to October 2013, was found in a low flux state with respect to previous observations but exhibited highly significant flux variability in the X-rays. The high-energy end of the synchrotron spectrum can be traced up to 40 keV without significant contamination by high-energy emission. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was used to reproduce the broadband flux of the source for all the observations presented here but failed for previous observations made in April 2013. A lepto-hadronic solution was then explored to explain these earlier observational results.
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4.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • An extreme particle accelerator in the Galactic plane : HESS J1826-130
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 644, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The unidentified very-high-energy (VHE; E > 0.1 TeV) gamma -ray source, HESS J1826-130, was discovered with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) in the Galactic plane. The analysis of 215 h of HESS data has revealed a steady gamma -ray flux from HESS J1826-130, which appears extended with a half-width of 0.21 degrees +/- 0.02 (stat)degrees stat degrees +/- 0.05 (sys)degrees sys degrees . The source spectrum is best fit with either a power-law function with a spectral index Gamma = 1.78 +/- 0.10(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and an exponential cut-off at 15.2 (+5.5)(-3.2) -3.2+5.5 TeV, or a broken power-law with Gamma (1) = 1.96 +/- 0.06(stat) +/- 0.20(sys), Gamma (2) = 3.59 +/- 0.69(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) for energies below and above E-br = 11.2 +/- 2.7 TeV, respectively. The VHE flux from HESS J1826-130 is contaminated by the extended emission of the bright, nearby pulsar wind nebula, HESS J1825-137, particularly at the low end of the energy spectrum. Leptonic scenarios for the origin of HESS J1826-130 VHE emission related to PSR J1826-1256 are confronted by our spectral and morphological analysis. In a hadronic framework, taking into account the properties of dense gas regions surrounding HESS J1826-130, the source spectrum would imply an astrophysical object capable of accelerating the parent particle population up to greater than or similar to 200 TeV. Our results are also discussed in a multiwavelength context, accounting for both the presence of nearby supernova remnants, molecular clouds, and counterparts detected in radio, X-rays, and TeV energies.
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5.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the colliding wind binary eta Car with HESS
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 635, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. Colliding wind binary systems have long been suspected to be high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitters. eta Car is the most prominent member of this object class and is confirmed to emit phase-locked HE gamma rays from hundreds of MeV to 100 GeV energies. This work aims to search for and characterise the very-high-energy (VHE; E >100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from eta Car around the last periastron passage in 2014 with the ground-based High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.).Methods. The region around eta Car was observed with H.E.S.S. between orbital phase p = 0.78-1.10, with a closer sampling at p approximate to 0.95 and p approximate to 1.10 (assuming a period of 2023 days). Optimised hardware settings as well as adjustments to the data reduction, reconstruction, and signal selection were needed to suppress and take into account the strong, extended, and inhomogeneous night sky background (NSB) in the eta Car field of view. Tailored run-wise Monte-Carlo simulations (RWS) were required to accurately treat the additional noise from NSB photons in the instrument response functions.Results. H.E.S.S. detected VHE gamma-ray emission from the direction of eta Car shortly before and after the minimum in the X-ray light-curve close to periastron. Using the point spread function provided by RWS, the reconstructed signal is point-like and the spectrum is best described by a power law. The overall flux and spectral index in VHE gamma rays agree within statistical and systematic errors before and after periastron. The gamma-ray spectrum extends up to at least 400 GeV. This implies a maximum magnetic field in a leptonic scenario in the emission region of 0.5 Gauss. No indication for phase-locked flux variations is detected in the H.E.S.S. data.
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6.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Probing the Magnetic Field in the GW170817 Outflow Using HESS Observations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 894:2, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The detection of the first electromagnetic counterpart to the binary neutron star (BNS) merger remnant GW170817 established the connection between short gamma-ray bursts and BNS mergers. It also confirmed the forging of heavy elements in the ejecta (a so-called kilonova) via the r-process nucleosynthesis. The appearance of nonthermal radio and X-ray emission, as well as the brightening, which lasted more than 100 days, were somewhat unexpected. Current theoretical models attempt to explain this temporal behavior as either originating from a relativistic off-axis jet or a kilonova-like outflow. In either scenario, there is some ambiguity regarding how much energy is transported in the nonthermal electrons versus the magnetic field of the emission region. Combining the Very Large Array (radio) and Chandra (X-ray) measurements with observations in the GeV-TeV domain can help break this ambiguity, almost independently of the assumed origin of the emission. Here we report for the first time on deep H.E.S.S. observations of GW170817/GRB 170817A between 124 and 272 days after the BNS merger with the full H.E.S.S. array of telescopes, as well as on an updated analysis of the prompt (<5 days) observations with the upgraded H.E.S.S. phase-I telescopes. We discuss implications of the H.E.S.S. measurement for the magnetic field in the context of different source scenarios.
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7.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Very high energy gamma-ray emission from two blazars of unknown redshift and upper limits on their distance
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 494:4, s. 5590-5602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the detection of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the BL Lac objects KUV 00311-1938 and PKS 1440-389 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). H.E.S.S. observations were accompanied or preceded by multiwavelength observations with Fermi/LAT, XRT and UVOT onboard the Swift satellite, and ATOM. Based on an extrapolation of the Fermi/LAT spectrum towards the VHE gamma-ray regime, we deduce a 95 per cent confidence level upper limit on the unknown redshift of KUV 00311-1938 of z < 0.98 and of PKS 1440-389 of z < 0.53. When combined with previous spectroscopy results, the redshift of KUV 00311-1938 is constrained to 0.51 <= z < 0.98 and of PKS 1440-389 to 0.14 (sic) z < 0.53.
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8.
  • Abdallah, H., et al. (författare)
  • Search for dark matter signals towards a selection of recently detected DES dwarf galaxy satellites of the Milky Way with HESS
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : American Physical Society. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 102:6, s. 1-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dwarf spheroidal galaxy satellites of the Milky Way are prime targets for indirect detection of dark matter with gamma rays due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and absence of nonthermal emission processes. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) revealed the existence of new ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the southern-hemisphere sky, therefore ideally located for ground-based observations with the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array H.E.S.S. We present a search for very-high-energy (E greater than or similar to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission using H.E.S.S. observations carried out recently towards Reticulum II, Tucana II, Tucana III, Tucana IV, and Grus II satellites. No significant very-high-energy gamma-ray excess is found from the observations on any individual object nor in the combined analysis of all the datasets. Using the most recent modeling of the dark matter distribution in the dwarf galaxy halo, we compute for the first time on DES satellites individual and combined constraints from Cherenkov telescope observations on the annihilation cross section of dark matter particles in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. The combined 95% C.L. observed upper limits reach similar or equal to 1 x 10(-23) cm(3) s(-1) in the W+W- channel and 4 x 10(-26) cm(3) s(-1) in the gamma gamma channels for a dark matter mass of 1.5 TeV. The H.E.S.S. constraints well complement the results from Fermi-LAT, HAWC, MAGIC, and VERITAS and are currently the most stringent in the gamma gamma channels in the multi-GeV/multi-TeV mass range.
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9.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • HESS and Fermi-LAT observations of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 during its 2014 and 2017 periastron passages
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 633, s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 is a gamma-ray binary system consisting of a pulsar in an eccentric orbit around a bright Oe stellar-type companion star that features a dense circumstellar disc. The bright broad-band emission observed at phases close to periastron offers a unique opportunity to study particle acceleration and radiation processes in binary systems. Observations at gamma-ray energies constrain these processes through variability and spectral characterisation studies. Aims. The high- and very-high-energy (HE, VHE) gamma-ray emission from PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around the times of its periastron passage are characterised, in particular, at the time of the HE gamma-ray flares reported to have occurred in 2011, 2014, and 2017. Short-term and average emission characteristics of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 are determined. Super-orbital variability is searched for in order to investigate possible cycle-to-cycle VHE flux changes due to different properties of the companion star's circumstellar disc and/or the conditions under which the HE gamma-ray flares develop. Methods. Spectra and light curves were derived from observations conducted with the H.E.S.S-II array in 2014 and 2017. Phase-folded light curves are compared with the results obtained in 2004, 2007, and 2011. Fermi-LAT observations from 2010/11, 2014, and 2017 are analysed. Results. A local double-peak profile with asymmetric peaks in the VHE light curve is measured, with a flux minimum at the time of periastron t(p) and two peaks coinciding with the times at which the neutron star crosses the companion's circumstellar disc (similar to t(p) 16 d). A high VHE gamma-ray flux is also observed at the times of the HE gamma-ray flares (similar to t(p) + 30 d) and at phases before the first disc crossing (similar to t(p) - 35 d). The spectral energy range now extends to below 200 GeV and up to similar to 45 TeV. Conclusions. PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 displays periodic flux variability at VHE gamma-rays without clear signatures of super-orbital modulation in the time span covered by the monitoring of the source with the H.E.S.S. telescopes. This flux variability is most probably caused by the changing environmental conditions, particularly at times close to periastron passage at which the neutron star is thought to cross the circumstellar disc of the companion star twice. In contrast, the photon index remains unchanged within uncertainties for about 200 d around periastron. At HE gamma-rays, PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 has now been detected also before and after periastron, close to the disc crossing times. Repetitive flares with distinct variability patterns are detected in this energy range. Such outbursts are not observed at VHEs, although a relatively high emission level is measured. The spectra obtained in both energy regimes displays a similar slope, although a common physical origin either in terms of a related particle population, emission mechanism, or emitter location is ruled out.
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10.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • HESS detection of very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the quasar PKS 0736+017
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 633, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Flat-spectrum radio-quasars (FSRQs) are rarely detected at very high energies (E& x2004;>=& x2004;100 GeV) due to their low-frequency-peaked spectral energy distributions. At present, only six FSRQs are known to emit very high-energy (VHE) photons, representing only 7% of the VHE extragalactic catalog, which is largely dominated by high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects. Aims. Following the detection of MeV-GeV gamma-ray flaring activity from the FSRQ PKS 0736+017 (z& x2004;=& x2004;0.189) with Fermi-LAT, the H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes triggered target-of-opportunity (ToO) observations on February 18, 2015, with the goal of studying the gamma-ray emission in the VHE band. Methods. H.E.S.S. ToO observations were carried out during the nights of February 18, 19, 21, and 24, 2015. Together with Fermi-LAT, the multi-wavelength coverage of the flare includes Swift observations in soft X-ray and optical-UV bands, and optical monitoring (photometry and spectro-polarimetry) by the Steward Observatory, and the ATOM, the KAIT, and the ASAS-SN telescopes. Results. VHE emission from PKS 0736+017 was detected with H.E.S.S. only during the night of February 19, 2015. Fermi-LAT data indicate the presence of a gamma-ray flare, peaking at the time of the H.E.S.S. detection, with a flux doubling timescale of around six hours. The gamma-ray flare was accompanied by at least a 1 mag brightening of the non-thermal optical continuum. No simultaneous observations at longer wavelengths are available for the night of the H.E.S.S. detection. The gamma-ray observations with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT are used to put constraints on the location of the gamma-ray emitting region during the flare: it is constrained to be just outside the radius of the broad-line region r(BLR) with a bulk Lorentz factor Gamma& x2004;similar or equal to& x2004;20, or at the level of the radius of the dusty torus r(torus) with Gamma& x2004;similar or equal to& x2004;60. Conclusions. PKS 0736+017 is the seventh FSRQ known to emit VHE photons, and at z& x2004;=& x2004;0.189 is the nearest so far. The location of the gamma-ray emitting region during the flare can be tightly constrained thanks to opacity, variability, and collimation arguments.
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