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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Eisman John A.) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Eisman John A.) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Kanis, John A, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of milk intake and fracture risk: low utility for case finding.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 16:7, s. 799-804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A low intake of calcium is widely considered to be a risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and to explore the effect of age, gender and bone mineral density (BMD) on this risk. We studied 39,563 men and women (69% female) from six prospectively studied cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, CaMos, DOES, the Rotterdam study, the Sheffield study and a cohort from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for 152,000 person-years. The effect of calcium intake as judged by the intake of milk on the risk of any fracture, any osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture alone was examined using a Poisson model for each sex from each cohort. Covariates examined were age and BMD. The results of the different studies were merged by using the weighted beta-coefficients. A low intake of calcium (less than 1 glass of milk daily) was not associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture, osteoporotic fracture or hip fracture. There was no difference in risk ratio between men and women. When both sexes were combined there was a small but non-significant increase in the risk of osteoporotic and of hip fracture. There was also a small increase in the risk of an osteoporotic fracture with age which was significant at the age of 80 years (RR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02-1.30) and above. The association was no longer significant after adjustment for BMD. No significant relationship was observed by age for low milk intake and hip fracture risk. We conclude that a self-reported low intake of milk is not associated with any marked increase in fracture risk and that the use of this risk indicator is of little or no value in case-finding strategies.
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2.
  • Kanis, John A, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake as a risk factor for fracture.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 16:7, s. 737-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High intakes of alcohol have adverse effects on skeletal health, but evidence for the effects of moderate consumption are less secure. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and explore the relationship of this risk with age, sex, and bone mineral density (BMD). We studied 5,939 men and 11,032 women from three prospectively studied cohorts comprising CaMos, DOES, and the Rotterdam Study. Cohorts were followed for a total of 75,433 person-years. The effect of reported alcohol intake on the risk of any fracture, any osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture alone was examined using a Poisson model for each sex from each cohort. Covariates examined included age and BMD. The results of the different studies were merged using weighted beta-coefficients. Alcohol intake was associated with a significant increase in osteoporotic and hip fracture risk, but the effect was nonlinear. No significant increase in risk was observed at intakes of 2 units or less daily. Above this threshold, alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of any fracture (risk ratio [RR] = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), any osteoporotic fracture (RR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.16-1.65), or hip fracture (RR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.36). There was no significant interaction with age, BMD, or time since baseline assessment. Risk ratios were moderately but not significantly higher in men than in women, and there was no evidence for a different threshold for effect by gender. We conclude that reported intake of alcohol confers a risk of some importance beyond that explained by BMD. The validation of this risk factor on an international basis permits its use in case-finding strategies.
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3.
  • Baldock, Paul A., et al. (författare)
  • Novel role of Y1 receptors in the coordinated regulation of bone and energy homeostasis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X .- 0021-9258. ; 282:26, s. 19092-19102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The importance of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y2 receptors in the regulation of bone and energy homeostasis has recently been demonstrated. However, the contributions of the other Y receptors are less clear. Here we show that Y1 receptors are expressed on osteoblastic cells. Moreover, bone and adipose tissue mass are elevated in Y1(-/-) mice with a generalized increase in bone formation on cortical and cancellous surfaces. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of NPY on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro are absent in cells derived from Y1(-/-) mice, indicating a direct action of NPY on bone cells via this Y receptor. Interestingly, in contrast to Y2 receptor or germ line Y1 receptor deletion, conditional deletion of hypothalamic Y1 receptors in adult mice did not alter bone homeostasis, food intake, or adiposity. Furthermore, deletion of both Y1 and Y2 receptors did not produce additive effects in bone or adiposity. Thus Y1 receptor pathways act powerfully to inhibit bone production and adiposity by nonhypothalamic pathways, with potentially direct effects on bone tissue through a single pathway with Y2 receptors.
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4.
  • Johnell, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 20:7, s. 1185-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between BMD and fracture risk was estimated in a meta-analysis of data from 12 cohort studies of approximately 39,000 men and women. Low hip BMD was an important predictor of fracture risk. The prediction of hip fracture with hip BMD also depended on age and z score. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between BMD and fracture risk and examine the effect of age, sex, time since measurement, and initial BMD value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 9891 men and 29,082 women from 12 cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, EPIDOS, OFELY, CaMos, Rochester, Sheffield, Rotterdam, Kuopio, DOES, Hiroshima, and 2 cohorts from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for up to 16.3 years and a total of 168,366 person-years. The effect of BMD on fracture risk was examined using a Poisson model in each cohort and each sex separately. Results of the different studies were then merged using weighted coefficients. RESULTS: BMD measurement at the femoral neck with DXA was a strong predictor of hip fractures both in men and women with a similar predictive ability. At the age of 65 years, risk ratio increased by 2.94 (95% CI = 2.02-4.27) in men and by 2.88 (95% CI = 2.31-3.59) in women for each SD decrease in BMD. However, the effect was dependent on age, with a significantly higher gradient of risk at age 50 years than at age 80 years. Although the gradient of hip fracture risk decreased with age, the absolute risk still rose markedly with age. For any fracture and for any osteoporotic fracture, the gradient of risk was lower than for hip fractures. At the age of 65 years, the risk of osteoporotic fractures increased in men by 1.41 per SD decrease in BMD (95% CI = 1.33-1.51) and in women by 1.38 per SD (95% CI = 1.28-1.48). In contrast with hip fracture risk, the gradient of risk increased with age. For the prediction of any osteoporotic fracture (and any fracture), there was a higher gradient of risk the lower the BMD. At a z score of -4 SD, the risk gradient was 2.10 per SD (95% CI = 1.63-2.71) and at a z score of -1 SD, the risk was 1.73 per SD (95% CI = 1.59-1.89) in men and women combined. A similar but less pronounced and nonsignificant effect was observed for hip fractures. Data for ultrasound and peripheral measurements were available from three cohorts. The predictive ability of these devices was somewhat less than that of DXA measurements at the femoral neck by age, sex, and BMD value. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that BMD is a risk factor for fracture of substantial importance and is similar in both sexes. Its validation on an international basis permits its use in case finding strategies. Its use should, however, take account of the variations in predictive value with age and BMD.
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5.
  • Ahlborg, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and risk factors for low trauma fractures in men with prostate cancer.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2763. ; 43, s. 556-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at increased risk of bone loss. The present study sought to determine the incidence of low trauma fracture in men with prostate cancer (PC), and to characterize the association between potential risk factors and fracture risk in these men. METHODS: In the prospective, population-based Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, 43 men aged 60+ years reported a history of prostate cancer; among whom, 22 men received ADT, and 21 men did not. Low-trauma fractures were ascertained between 1989 and 2004. Bone mineral density at the femoral neck (FNBMD), postural instability and lifestyle factors were obtained at baseline. RESULTS: Men with prostate cancer had significantly higher lumbar spine BMD than those without cancer (p=0.013). During the follow-up period, 15 men with prostate cancer had sustained a fracture, yielding the age-adjusted incidence of fracture among this group was 31.6 per 1000 person-years, which was greater than those without cancer (22.1 per 1000 person-years). The age-adjusted incidence of fracture was more pronounced among those with prostate cancer on ADT (40.2 per 1000 person-years). After adjusting for age, the increase in fracture risk among prostate cancer patients was associated with lower femoral neck BMD (hazard ratio [HR] per SD=1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.4) and increased rate of bone loss (HR 2.3, 1.2-4.6). CONCLUSIONS: Men with prostate cancer, particularly those treated with ADT, had an increased fracture risk. Although the average BMD in men with prostate cancer was higher than men without cancer, a low BMD prior to treatment or increased rate of bone loss after initiating ADT treatment was each a significant predictor of fracture in these.
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6.
  • Nguyen, Nguyen D., et al. (författare)
  • Residual lifetime risk of fractures in women and men
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 1523-4681. ; 22:6, s. 781-788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a sample of 1358 women and 858 men, >= 60 yr of age who have been followed-up for up to 15 yr, it was estimated that the mortality-adjusted residual lifetime risk of fracture was 44 % for women and 25 % for men. Among those with BMD T-scores <=-2.5, the risks increased to 65% in women and 42% in men. Introduction: Risk assessment of osteoporotic fracture is shifting from relative risk to an absolute risk approach. Whereas BMD is a primary predictor of fracture risk, there has been no estimate of mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of fracture by BMD level. The aim of the study was to estimate the residual lifetime risk of fracture (RLRF) in elderly men and women. Materials and Methods: Data from 1358 women and 858 men >= 60 yr of age as of 1989 of white background from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study were analyzed. The participants have been followed for up to 15 yr. During the follow-up period, incidence of low-trauma, nonpathological fractures, confirmed by X-ray and personal interview, were recorded. Incidence of mortality was also recorded. BMD at the femoral neck was measured by DXA (GE-LUNAR) at baseline. Residual lifetime risk of fracture from the age of 60 was estimated by the survival analysis taking into account the competing risk of death. Results: After adjusting for competing risk of death, the RLRF for women and men from age 60 was 44% (95% CI, 40-48) and 25% (95% CI, 19-31), respectively. For individuals with osteoporosis (BMD T-scores <= -2.5), the mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of any fracture was 65% (95% CI, 58-73) for women and 42% (95% CI, 24-71) for men. For the entire cohort, the lifetime risk of hip fracture was 8.5% (95% CI, 6-11%) for women and 4% (95% CI, 1.3-5.4%) for men; risk of symptomatic vertebral fracture was 18% (95% CI, 15-21%) for women and 11% (95% CI, 7-14%) for men. Conclusions: These estimates provide a means to communicate the absolute risk of fracture to an individual patient and can help promote the identification and targeting of high-risk individuals for intervention.
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