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Sökning: WFRF:(Ekelund Mats) > (2005-2009) > (2006)

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1.
  • Ekelund, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Selective induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in pancreatic islet of rat after an intravenous glucose or intralipid challenge.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nutrition. - Elsevier. - 1873-1244. ; 22:2006 Apr 22, s. 652-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Constant exposure of pancreatic islets to high levels of glucose or free fatty acids can lead to irreversible beta-cell dysfunction, a process referred to as glucotoxicity or lipotoxicity, respectively. In this context a role for nitric oxide generated by pancreatic islet has been suggested. The present investigation examined whether the route of glucose administration, i.e., given orally (OG) or infused intravenously (IVG), could have any effect on the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pancreatic islets. Methods: Rats were infused with glucose (50%) or Intralipid intravenously for 24 h or given glucose orally. A freely fed control group (FF) was also included. At 24 h rats were killed and blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma insulin, glucagon, and glucose. Pancreatic islets were harvested from each animal and investigated for the occurrence of iNOS by the use of confocal microscopy, western blot, and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The effect of intravenously infused glucose was then compared with the effect of an intravenous infusion of Intralipid (IL). Results: Plasma insulin levels were markedly decreased after 24 h of infusion of glucose (IVG group) or Intralipid (IL group) compared with the FF or OG group. Plasma glucagon and glucose levels were markedly increased in the IVG group, whereas both parameters were decreased in the IL group. No significant differences in plasma insulin, glucagon, or glucose were found between the OG and FF groups. Immunocytochemical (confocal microscopy), western blot, and biochemical (high-performance liquid chromatographic) analyses showed that a sustained increase in plasma level of glucose or free fatty acids by an intravenous infusion of either nutrient for 24 h resulted in a marked expression and activity of iNOS in pancreatic islets. No sign of iNOS expression could, however, be detected in the islets of FF control or OG rats. Conclusion: The data suggest that impaired beta-cell function found after 24 It of an intravenous infusion of glucose or Intralipid might be mediated, at least in part, by the induction of iNOS in pancreatic islets. This may subsequently result in an exclusive production of nitric oxide, which is deleterious for beta-cells. (C) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Öhrström, Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • Working Capacity and Well-Being after Radical Cystectomy with Continent Cutaneous Diversion.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 49:4, s. 691-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The primary aim was to compare the working capacity in patients with continent urinary diversion with a control group. Secondary aims were to assess the changes in electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and the functional status during strenuous physical activity, and finally, the well-being in the two groups. Methods: Eleven patients who had undergone radical cystectomy and continent cutaneous diversion using an ileocolonic segment participated. The control group consisted of 12 men, matched for age and activity level. Working capacity was assessed by ergospirometry on an exercise bicycle. Venous blood samples were taken before the test, when the expiratory exchange ratio (RER) was about 1.0 and immediately after completion of the test. SF-36 was used to evaluate the subject's functional status and well-being. Results: The median working capacity in the patient group was 155 (85190) W and 155 (125-215) W in the control group (n.s.) corresponding to 72 (43-97) % and 80 (59-97) % respectively of predicted values. Peak oxygen uptake was somewhat low in both groups when compared to P-O Astrands norms. Blood tests revealed that patients developed a slight metabolic hyperchloremic acidosis, not seen in the control group. There were no differences between the groups as assessed with SF-36. Conclusion: Patients with a continent urinary diversion have a working capacity equal to a control group despite a slight metabolic hyperchloremic acidosis. Quality of life was similar in the two groups and corresponded well with the norms for the general Swedish population aged 65 to 74. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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