1. 
 Buehler, S.A., et al.
(författare)

A concept for a satellite mission to measure cloud ice water path, ice particle size, and cloud altitude
 2007

Ingår i: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society.  00359009. ; 133:S2, s. 109128

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 A passive satellite radiometer operating at submillimetre wavelengths can measure cloud ice water path (IWP), ice particle size, and cloud altitude. The paper first discusses the scientific background for such measurements. Formal scientific mission requirements are derived, based on this background and earlier assessments. The paper then presents a comprehensive prototype instrument and mission concept, and demonstrates that it meets the requirements. The instrument is a conically scanning 12channel radiometer with channels between 183 and 664 GHz, proposed to fly in tandem with one of the Metop satellites. It can measure IWP with a relative accuracy of approximately 20% and a detection threshold of approximately 2 g m2. The median mass equivalent sphere diameter of the ice particles can be measured with an accuracy of approximately 30 µm, and the median IWP cloud altitude can be measured with an accuracy of approximately 300 m. All the above accuracies are median absolute error values; root mean square error values are approximately twice as high, due to rare outliers.


2. 
 Melsheimer, C., et al.
(författare)

Intercomparison of General Purpose Clear Sky Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Models for the Millimeter/submillimeter Spectral Range
 2005

Ingår i: Radio Science. ; 40

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We compare a number of radiative transfer models for atmospheric sounding in the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range, check their consistency, and investigate their deviations from each other. This intercomparison deals with three different aspects of radiative transfer models: (1) the inherent physics of gaseous absorption lines and how they are modeled, (2) the calculation of absorption coefficients, and (3) the full calculation of radiative transfer for different geometries, i.e., uplooking, downlooking, and limblooking. The correctness and consistency of the implementations are tested by comparing calculations with predefined input such as spectroscopic data, line shape, continuum absorption model, and frequency grid. The absorption coefficients and brightness temperatures calculated by the different models are generally within about 1% of each other. Furthermore, the variability or uncertainty of the model results is estimated if (except for the atmospheric scenario) the input such as spectroscopic data, line shape, and continuum absorption model could be chosen freely. Here the models deviate from each other by about 10% around the center of major absorption lines. The main cause of such discrepancies is the variability of reported spectroscopic data for line absorption and of the continuum absorption model. Further possible causes of discrepancies are different frequency and pressure grids and differences in the corresponding interpolation routines, as well as differences in the line shape functions used, namely a prefactor of (nu/nu(0)) or (nu/nu(0))(2) of the VanVleckWeisskopf line shape function. Whether or not the discrepancies affect retrieval results remains to be investigated for each application individually.


3. 
 Emde, C., et al.
(författare)

A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir longwave measurements in 1D/3D spherical atmospheres
 2004

Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research  Atmospheres.  01480227. ; 109:D24

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 This article describes one of the scattering algorithms of the threedimensional polarized radiative transfer model ARTS (Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator) which has been implemented to study for example the influence of cirrus clouds on microwave limb sounding. The model uses the DOIT (Discrete Ordinate Iterative) method to solve the vector radiative transfer equation. The implementation of a discrete ordinate method is challenging due to the spherical geometry of the model atmosphere which is required for the simulation of limb radiances. The involved numerical issues, which are grid optimization and interpolation methods, are discussed in this paper. Scattering simulations are presented for limb and downlooking geometries, for onedimensional and threedimensional spherical atmospheres. They show the impact of cloud particle size, shape, and orientation on the brightness temperatures and on the polarization of microwave radiation in the atmosphere. The cloud effect is much larger for limb radiances than for nadir radiances. Particle size is a very important parameter in all simulations. The polarization signal is negligible for simulations with completely randomly oriented particles, whereas for horizontally aligned particles with random azimuthal orientation the polarization signal is significant. Moreover, the effect of particle shape is only relevant for oriented cloud particles. The simulations show that it is essential to use a threedimensional scattering model for inhomogeneous cloud layers.


4. 

