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Sökning: WFRF:(Enflo Kerstin)

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  • Berger, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Geographical Location and Urbanization of the Swedish Manufacturing Industry, 1900-1960: Evidence from a New Database
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review. - 1750-2837 .- 0358-5522. ; 60:3, s. 290-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article introduces a new database, based on official statistics, of regional manufacturing industries in Sweden. We employ this database to examine the distribution of manufacturing activity across Swedish regions and cities, 1900–1960. Over this period we observe an increasing concentration of manufacturing activities, reaching a peak around 1940, across the northern, southern and western parts (NUTS-I areas) of Sweden. Over the same period, the North-South divide in terms of manufacturing employment grew larger. Across counties (NUTS-III) and cities we, however, observe two shorter periods of convergence of manufacturing activities, in the early twentieth century and in the post-war period, whereas the inter-war period was characterised by divergence. These developments occurred to the backdrop of the urbanisation of industry in Sweden, as the rural share of manufacturing employment declined from roughly 60 to 25% between 1900 and 1960. We also find that the regional patterns of individual industries over time followed different trajectories, suggesting that that the determinants of industry location differed significantly across industries.
  • Berger, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Locomotives of Local Growth: The Short- and Long-Term Impact of Railroads in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Lund Papers in Economic History. General Issues. - Department of Economic History, Lund University. ; :132
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper studies the impact of railroads on town-level growth in Sweden over 150 years. Our analysis builds on the fact that railroads historically were extended quasi-randomly across towns. Towns that gained access to a rail connection grew larger relative to other<br /> towns, with large negative spillovers on unconnected nearby towns. Over the 20th century, we find little adjustment to the initial shock in town populations, despite a sharp reversal in relative connectivity. Evidence on historical investments and present-day factors is consistent with this temporary shock giving rise to path dependence in the location of economic activity.
  • Enflo, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Causality Between Energy and Output in the Long-Run
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Energy Economics. - Elsevier. - 1873-6181 .- 0140-9883. ; 39, s. 135-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Though there is a very large literature examining whether energy use Granger causes economic output or vice versa, it is fairly inconclusive. Almost all existing studies use relatively short time series, or panels with a relatively small time dimension. We apply Granger causality and cointegration techniques to a Swedish time series dataset spanning 150 years to test whether increases in energy use and energy quality have driven economic growth or vice versa. We show that these techniques are very sensitive to variable definition, choice of additional variables in the model, sample periods and size, and the introduction of structural breaks. The relationship between energy and growth may also have changed over time - energy causes output in the full sample while output causes energy use in recent smaller samples. Energy prices have a more robust causal impact on both energy use and output.
  • Enflo, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Coping with Regional Inequality in Sweden: Structural Change, Migrations and Policy, 1860-2000
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Economic History Review. - John Wiley & Sons Ltd. - 0013-0117 .- 1468-0289. ; 68:1, s. 191-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many countries, regional income inequality has followed an inverted U-shaped curve, growing during industrialisation and market integration and declining thereafter. By contrast, Sweden’s regional inequality dropped from 1860 to 1980 and did not show this U-shaped pattern. Accordingly, today’s regional income inequality in Sweden is lower than in other European countries. We note that the prime mover behind the long-run reduction in regional income differentials was structural change, whereas neo-classical and technological forces played a relatively less important role. However, this process of regional income convergence can be divided into two major periods. During the first period (1860-1940), the unrestricted action of market forces, particularly the expansion of markets and high rates of internal and international migrations, led to the compression of regional income differentials. In the subsequent period (1940-2000), the intended intervention of successive governments appears to have also been important for the evolution of regional income inequality. Regional convergence was intense from 1940 to 1980. In this period, governments aided the convergence in productivity among industries and the reallocation of the workforce from the declining to the thriving regions and economic sectors. During the next period (1980-2000), when regional incomes diverged, governments subsidised firms and people in the declining areas.
  • Enflo, Kerstin (författare)
  • Covergence or Divergence? An efficiency approach to European Regional Growth 1980-2002
  • 2005
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study investigates the changing growth pattern of 69 European regions measured at NUTS-level 2 between 1980 and 2002 by addressing the hypothesis of capital accumulation versus technological change as sources of convergence or divergence. The paper adds to the existing regional growth and convergence literature in three respects. First, regional estimates of capital stocks are constructed from regional investment series using the Perpetual Inventory Method (PIM). Second, and in contrast to earlier regional growth studies that use standard regression analysis or cluster analysis, the study utilizes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) combined with a recently proposed decomposition of productivity growth (Kumar &amp; Russell: 2002) into three factors: capital accumulation; technical change and relative efficiency improvements (“catch-up”). The advantage of DEA is that it is non-parametric and requires no a priori specification of the functional form of the productivity frontier. In addition, it allows for a dynamic analysis that can reveal historical lead-lag patterns and identify shifts in the constructed worldwide production frontier. Third, the analysis is extended to address the dynamics of the regional productivity distribution in order to investigate questions of convergence, divergence or the emergence of European “regional clubs” in accordance with the ideas expressed in Quah (1996). From a tentative analysis two results emerge: (i) Capital accumulation and technological change seem to have played equally important roles in increasing labour productivity during the investigated time period. However, relative efficiency improvements seem to have been virtually absent. This suggests that the ranking of regions has remained stable over the time period and that few regions have managed to improve their relative positions. In opposition with standard neoclassical growth models, it also appears that capital accumulation has had a slightly diverging effect on the labour productivity distribution, rather than causing convergence. (ii) Technology is clearly not Hicks neutral, meaning that technological change and technology adaption seem to occur mainly in highly capitalized regions. This finding further highlights the importance of understanding the process of technology diffusion for patterns of growth.
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