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Sökning: WFRF:(Enflo Kerstin)

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  • Berger, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Geographical Location and Urbanization of the Swedish Manufacturing Industry, 1900-1960: Evidence from a New Database
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review. - Routledge. - 0358-5522. ; 60:3, s. 290-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article introduces a new database, based on official statistics, of regional manufacturing industries in Sweden. We employ this database to examine the distribution of manufacturing activity across Swedish regions and cities, 1900–1960. Over this period we observe an increasing concentration of manufacturing activities, reaching a peak around 1940, across the northern, southern and western parts (NUTS-I areas) of Sweden. Over the same period, the North-South divide in terms of manufacturing employment grew larger. Across counties (NUTS-III) and cities we, however, observe two shorter periods of convergence of manufacturing activities, in the early twentieth century and in the post-war period, whereas the inter-war period was characterised by divergence. These developments occurred to the backdrop of the urbanisation of industry in Sweden, as the rural share of manufacturing employment declined from roughly 60 to 25% between 1900 and 1960. We also find that the regional patterns of individual industries over time followed different trajectories, suggesting that that the determinants of industry location differed significantly across industries.
  • Berger, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Locomotives of local growth: The short- and long-term impact of railroads in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urban Economics. - Elsevier. - 1095-9068. ; 98, s. 124-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper studies the impact of railroads on 150 years of urban growth in Sweden, identifying the short- and long-term effects of a first wave of railroad construction. Difference-in-differences and instrumental variable estimates show that towns that gained access experienced substantial relative increases in population, though such growth mainly reflected a relocation of economic activity. Over the twentieth century, we find little evidence of convergence in town populations, despite the railroad network expanding further to connect nearly all towns. Evidence on historical investments and present-day factors is consistent with the idea that the transitory shock of the first railroads gave rise to path dependence in the location of economic activity.
  • Berger, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Locomotives of Local Growth: The Short- and Long-Term Impact of Railroads in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper studies the impact of railroads on town-level growth in Sweden over 150 years. Our analysis builds on the fact that railroads historically were extended quasi-randomly across towns. Towns that gained access to a rail connection grew larger relative to other towns, with large negative spillovers on unconnected nearby towns. Over the 20th century, we find little adjustment to the initial shock in town populations, despite a sharp reversal in relative connectivity. Evidence on historical investments and present-day factors is consistent with this temporary shock giving rise to path dependence in the location of economic activity.
  • Collantes, Fernando, et al. (författare)
  • In memoriam : Lennart Schön, 1946-2016
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Investigaciones de Historia Economica. - Spanish Association of Economic History. - 1698-6989. ; 12:2, s. 67-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Enflo, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Causality Between Energy and Output in the Long-Run
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Energy Economics. - Elsevier. - 0140-9883. ; 39, s. 135-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Though there is a very large literature examining whether energy use Granger causes economic output or vice versa, it is fairly inconclusive. Almost all existing studies use relatively short time series, or panels with a relatively small time dimension. We apply Granger causality and cointegration techniques to a Swedish time series dataset spanning 150 years to test whether increases in energy use and energy quality have driven economic growth or vice versa. We show that these techniques are very sensitive to variable definition, choice of additional variables in the model, sample periods and size, and the introduction of structural breaks. The relationship between energy and growth may also have changed over time - energy causes output in the full sample while output causes energy use in recent smaller samples. Energy prices have a more robust causal impact on both energy use and output.
  • Enflo, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Coping with Regional Inequality in Sweden: Structural Change, Migrations and Policy, 1860-2000
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Economic History Review. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1468-0289. ; 68:1, s. 191-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many countries, regional income inequality has followed an inverted U-shaped curve, growing during industrialisation and market integration and declining thereafter. By contrast, Sweden’s regional inequality dropped from 1860 to 1980 and did not show this U-shaped pattern. Accordingly, today’s regional income inequality in Sweden is lower than in other European countries. We note that the prime mover behind the long-run reduction in regional income differentials was structural change, whereas neo-classical and technological forces played a relatively less important role. However, this process of regional income convergence can be divided into two major periods. During the first period (1860-1940), the unrestricted action of market forces, particularly the expansion of markets and high rates of internal and international migrations, led to the compression of regional income differentials. In the subsequent period (1940-2000), the intended intervention of successive governments appears to have also been important for the evolution of regional income inequality. Regional convergence was intense from 1940 to 1980. In this period, governments aided the convergence in productivity among industries and the reallocation of the workforce from the declining to the thriving regions and economic sectors. During the next period (1980-2000), when regional incomes diverged, governments subsidised firms and people in the declining areas.
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