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Sökning: WFRF:(English Dallas R.) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Crowe, Francesca L (författare)
  • Circulating fatty acids and prostate cancer risk : individual participant meta-analysis of prospective studies.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 106:109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Individual studies have suggested that some circulating fatty acids are associated with prostate cancer risk, but have not been large enough to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by stage and grade of disease.METHODS: Principal investigators of prospective studies on circulating fatty acids and prostate cancer were invited to collaborate. Investigators provided individual participant data on circulating fatty acids (weight percent) and other characteristics of prostate cancer cases and controls. Prostate cancer risk by study-specific fifths of 14 fatty acids was estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.RESULTS: Five thousand and ninety-eight case patients and 6649 control patients from seven studies with an average follow-up of 5.1 (SD = 3.3) years were included. Stearic acid (18:0) was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] Q5 vs Q1 = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00, P trend = .043). Prostate cancer risk was, respectively, 14% and 16% greater in the highest fifth of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.29, Ptrend = .001) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.33, P trend = .003), but in each case there was heterogeneity between studies (P = .022 and P < .001, respectively). There was heterogeneity in the association between docosapentaenoic acid and prostate cancer by grade of disease (P = .006); the association was statistically significant for low-grade disease but not high-grade disease. The remaining 11 fatty acids were not statistically associated with total prostate cancer risk.CONCLUSION: There was no strong evidence that circulating fatty acids are important predictors of prostate cancer risk. It is not clear whether the modest associations of stearic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acid are causal.
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2.
  • Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. (författare)
  • Coffee, Tea, and Sugar-Sweetened Carbonated Soft Drink Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk : A Pooled Analysis of 14 Cohort Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ; 21:2, s. 305-318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anticarcinogenic properties, whereas tea may contain anticarcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, whereas findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. Methods: In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.81-1.48 comparing >= 900 to <0 g/d; 237g approximate to 8oz), tea (MVRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.16 comparing >= 400 to 0 g/d; 237g approximate to 8oz), or SSB (MVRR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98-1.46 comparing >= 250 to 0 g/d; 355g approximate to 12oz; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity > 0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status, and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). Conclusion and Impact: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB.
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3.
  • Bao, Ying, et al. (författare)
  • Folate Intake and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer : Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: ; 103:24, s. 1840-1850
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer have produced inconsistent results. The statistical power to examine this association has been limited in previous studies partly because of small sample size and limited range of folate intake in some studies. Methods We analyzed primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies that included 319 716 men and 542 948 women to assess the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer. Folate intake was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in each study. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results During 7-20 years of follow-up across studies, 2195 pancreatic cancers were identified. No association was observed between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer in men and women (highest vs lowest quintile: dietary folate intake, pooled multivariable RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.25, P-trend = .47; total folate intake [dietary folate and supplemental folic acid], pooled multivariable RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.16, P-trend = .90). No between-study heterogeneity was observed (for dietary folate, P-heterogeneity = .15; for total folate, P-heterogeneity = .22). Conclusion Folate intake was not associated with overall risk of pancreatic cancer in this large pooled analysis.
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4.
  • de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington, et al. (författare)
  • Body-Mass Index and Mortality among 1.46 Million White Adults.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ; 363:23, s. 2211-2219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A high body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) is associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but the precise relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality remains uncertain. Methods: We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for an association between BMI and all-cause mortality, adjusting for age, study, physical activity, alcohol consumption, education, and marital status in pooled data from 19 prospective studies encompassing 1.46 million white adults, 19 to 84 years of age (median, 58). Results: The median baseline BMI was 26.2. During a median follow-up period of 10 years (range, 5 to 28), 160,087 deaths were identified. Among healthy participants who never smoked, there was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality. With a BMI of 22.5 to 24.9 as the reference category, hazard ratios among women were 1.47 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.33 to 1.62) for a BMI of 15.0 to 18.4; 1.14 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.22) for a BMI of 18.5 to 19.9; 1.00 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.04) for a BMI of 20.0 to 22.4; 1.13 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.17) for a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9; 1.44 (95% CI, 1.38 to 1.50) for a BMI of 30.0 to 34.9; 1.88 (95% CI, 1.77 to 2.00) for a BMI of 35.0 to 39.9; and 2.51 (95% CI, 2.30 to 2.73) for a BMI of 40.0 to 49.9. In general, the hazard ratios for the men were similar. Hazard ratios for a BMI below 20.0 were attenuated with longer-term follow-up. Conclusions: In white adults, overweight and obesity (and possibly underweight) are associated with increased all-cause mortality. All-cause mortality is generally lowest with a BMI of 20.0 to 24.9. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2211-9.
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5.
  • Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. (författare)
  • A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies of anthropometric factors and pancreatic cancer risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: ; 129:7, s. 1708-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer risk have reported null or nonsignificant positive associations for obesity, while associations for height have been null. Waist and hip circumference have been evaluated infrequently. A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies on 846,340 individuals was conducted; 2,135 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Compared to individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at baseline between 21-22.9 kg/m(2), pancreatic cancer risk was 47% higher (95% CI:23-75%) among obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) individuals. A positive association was observed for BMI in early adulthood (pooled multivariate [MV]RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.09-1.56 comparing BMI >= 25 kg/m(2) to a BMI between 21 and 22.9 kg/m(2)). Compared to individuals who were not overweight in early adulthood (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) and not obese at baseline (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)), pancreatic cancer risk was 54% higher (95%CI = 24-93%) for those who were overweight in early adulthood and obese at baseline. We observed a 40% higher risk among individuals who had gained BMI >= 10 kg/m(2) between BMI at baseline and younger ages compared to individuals whose BMI remained stable. Results were either similar or slightly stronger among never smokers. A positive association was observed between waist to hip ratio (WHR) and pancreatic cancer risk (pooled MVRR = 1.35 comparing the highest versus lowest quartile, 95%CI = 1.03-1.78). BMI and WHR were positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Maintaining normal body weight may offer a feasible approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from pancreatic cancer.
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6.
  • Bailey-Wilson, Joan E, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Xq27-28 linkage in the international consortium for prostate cancer genetics (ICPCG) families
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2350 .- 1471-2350. ; 13, s. 46-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genetic variants are likely to contribute to a portion of prostate cancer risk. Full elucidation of the genetic etiology of prostate cancer is difficult because of incomplete penetrance and genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Current evidence suggests that genetic linkage to prostate cancer has been found on several chromosomes including the X; however, identification of causative genes has been elusive.Methods: Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed using 26 microsatellite markers in each of 11 groups of multiple-case prostate cancer families from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). Meta-analyses of the resultant family-specific linkage statistics across the entire 1,323 families and in several predefined subsets were then performed.Results: Meta-analyses of linkage statistics resulted in a maximum parametric heterogeneity lod score (HLOD) of 1.28, and an allele-sharing lod score (LOD) of 2.0 in favor of linkage to Xq27-q28 at 138 cM. In subset analyses, families with average age at onset less than 65 years exhibited a maximum HLOD of 1.8 (at 138 cM) versus a maximum regional HLOD of only 0.32 in families with average age at onset of 65 years or older. Surprisingly, the subset of families with only 2-3 affected men and some evidence of male-to-male transmission of prostate cancer gave the strongest evidence of linkage to the region (HLOD = 3.24, 134 cM). For this subset, the HLOD was slightly increased (HLOD = 3.47 at 134 cM) when families used in the original published report of linkage to Xq27-28 were excluded.Conclusions: Although there was not strong support for linkage to the Xq27-28 region in the complete set of families, the subset of families with earlier age at onset exhibited more evidence of linkage than families with later onset of disease. A subset of families with 2-3 affected individuals and with some evidence of male to male disease transmission showed stronger linkage signals. Our results suggest that the genetic basis for prostate cancer in our families is much more complex than a single susceptibility locus on the X chromosome, and that future explorations of the Xq27-28 region should focus on the subset of families identified here with the strongest evidence of linkage to this region.
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7.
  • Cerhan, James R., et al. (författare)
  • A Pooled Analysis of Waist Circumference and Mortality in 650,000 Adults
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ; 89:3, s. 335-345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To assess the independent effect of waist circumference on mortality across the entire body mass index (BMI) range and to estimate the loss in life expectancy related to a higher waist circumference. Patients and Methods: We pooled data from 11 prospective cohort studies with 650,386 white adults aged 20 to 83 years and enrolled from January 1, 1986, through December 31, 2000. We used proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association of waist circumference with mortality. Results: During a median follow-up of 9 years (maximum, 21 years), 78,268 participants died. After accounting for age, study, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, a strong positive linear association of waist circumference with all-cause mortality was observed for men (HR, 1.52 for waist circumferences of >= 110 vs < 90 cm; 95% CI, 1.45-1.59; HR, 1.07 per 5-cm increment in waist circumference; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08) and women (HR, 1.80 for waist circumferences of >= 95 vs < 70 cm; 95% CI, 1.70-1.89; HR, 1.09 per 5-cm increment in waist circumference; 95% CI, 1.08-1.09). The estimated decrease in life expectancy for highest vs lowest waist circumference was approximately 3 years for men and approximately 5 years for women. The HR per 5-cm increment in waist circumference was similar for both sexes at all BMI levels from 20 to 50 kg/m(2), but it was higher at younger ages, higher for longer follow-up, and lower among male current smokers. The associations were stronger for heart and respiratory disease mortality than for cancer. Conclusions: In white adults, higher waist circumference was positively associated with higher mortality at all levels of BMI from 20 to 50 kg/m(2). Waist circumference should be assessed in combination with BMI, even for those in the normal BMI range, as part of risk assessment for obesity-related premature mortality. (C) 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
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8.
  • Christensen, G Bryce, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide linkage analysis of 1,233 prostate cancer pedigrees from the International Consortium for prostate cancer Genetics using novel sumLINK and sumLOD analyses.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 70, s. 735-744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is generally believed to have a strong inherited component, but the search for susceptibility genes has been hindered by the effects of genetic heterogeneity. The recently developed sumLINK and sumLOD statistics are powerful tools for linkage analysis in the presence of heterogeneity. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of 1,233 PC pedigrees from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) using two novel statistics, the sumLINK and sumLOD. For both statistics, dominant and recessive genetic models were considered. False discovery rate (FDR) analysis was conducted to assess the effects of multiple testing. RESULTS: Our analysis identified significant linkage evidence at chromosome 22q12, confirming previous findings by the initial conventional analyses of the same ICPCG data. Twelve other regions were identified with genome-wide suggestive evidence for linkage. Seven regions (1q23, 5q11, 5q35, 6p21, 8q12, 11q13, 20p11-q11) are near loci previously identified in the initial ICPCG pooled data analysis or the subset of aggressive PC pedigrees. Three other regions (1p12, 8p23, 19q13) confirm loci reported by others, and two (2p24, 6q27) are novel susceptibility loci. FDR testing indicates that over 70% of these results are likely true positive findings. Statistical recombinant mapping narrowed regions to an average of 9 cM. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent genomic regions with the greatest consistency of positive linkage evidence across a very large collection of high-risk PC pedigrees using new statistical tests that deal powerfully with heterogeneity. These regions are excellent candidates for further study to identify PC predisposition genes. Prostate (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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9.
  • Koushik, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of pancreatic cancer in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ; 176:5, s. 373-386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7-20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk.
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10.
  • Lu, Lingyi, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosomes 4 and 8 implicated in a genome wide SNP linkage scan of 762 prostate cancer families collected by the ICPCG
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 72:4, s. 410-426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND In spite of intensive efforts, understanding of the genetic aspects of familial prostate cancer (PC) remains largely incomplete. In a previous microsatellite-based linkage scan of 1,233 PC families, we identified suggestive evidence for linkage (i.e., LOD?=?1.86) at 5q12, 15q11, 17q21, 22q12, and two loci on 8p, with additional regions implicated in subsets of families defined by age at diagnosis, disease aggressiveness, or number of affected members. METHODS. In an attempt to replicate these findings and increase linkage resolution, we used the Illumina 6000 SNP linkage panel to perform a genome-wide linkage scan of an independent set of 762 multiplex PC families, collected by 11 International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) groups. RESULTS. Of the regions identified previously, modest evidence of replication was observed only on the short arm of chromosome 8, where HLOD scores of 1.63 and 3.60 were observed in the complete set of families and families with young average age at diagnosis, respectively. The most significant linkage signals found in the complete set of families were observed across a broad, 37cM interval on 4q13-25, with LOD scores ranging from 2.02 to 2.62, increasing to 4.50 in families with older average age at diagnosis. In families with multiple cases presenting with more aggressive disease, LOD cores over 3.0 were observed at 8q24 in the vicinity of previously identified common PC risk variants, as well as MYC, an important gene in PC biology. CONCLUSIONS. These results will be useful in prioritizing future susceptibility gene discovery efforts in thiscommon cancer. Prostate 72: 410-426, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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