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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Förlin Lars 1950 ) ;lar1:(gu);pers:(Förlin Lars 1950);pers:(Gunnarsson Lina Maria 1977)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Förlin Lars 1950 ) > Göteborgs universitet > Förlin Lars 1950 > Gunnarsson Lina Maria 1977

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  • Gunnarsson, Lina-Maria, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Diluted 1:500 Affects Global Gene Expression, Cytochrome P4501A Activity and Plasma Phosphate in Fish.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC. - 0730-7268. ; 28:12, s. 2639-2647
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patancheru, near Hyderabad, India, is a major production site for the global bulk drug market. Approximately 90 manufacturers send their wastewater to a common treatment plant in Patancheru. Extraordinary high levels of a wide range of pharmaceuticals have recently been demonstrated in the treated effluent. As little as 0.2% of this effluent can strongly reduce the growth rate of tadpoles, but the underlying mechanisms of toxicity are not known. To begin addressing how the effluent affects aquatic vertebrates, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0.2% effluent for five days. Several physiological endpoints, together with effects on global hepatic gene expression patterns, were analyzed. The exposed fish showed both an induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) gene expression, as well as enzyme activity. Clinical blood chemistry analyses revealed an increase in plasma phosphate levels, which in humans indicates impaired kidney function. Several oxidative stress-related genes were induced in the livers; however, no significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activities or in the hepatic glutathione levels were found. Furthermore, estrogen-regulated genes were slightly up-regulated following exposure, and moderate levels of estriol were detected in the effluent. The present study identifies changes in gene expression triggered by exposure to a high dilution of the effluent, supporting the hypothesis that these fish are responding to chemical exposure. The pattern of regulated genes may contribute to the identification of mechanisms of sub-lethal toxicity, as well as illuminate possible causative agents.
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  • Gunnarsson, Lina-Maria, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Sensitive and robust gene expression changes in fish exposed to estrogen – a microarray approach
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164. ; 8:149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Vitellogenin is a well established biomarker for estrogenic exposure in fish. However, effects on gonadal differentiation at concentrations of estrogen not sufficient to give rise to a measurable vitellogenin response suggest that more sensitive biomarkers would be useful. Induction of zona pellucida genes may be more sensitive but their specificities are not as clear. The objective of this study was to find additional sensitive and robust candidate biomarkers of estrogenic exposure. Results Hepatic mRNA expression profiles were characterized in juvenile rainbow trout exposed to a measured concentration of 0.87 and 10 ng ethinylestradiol/L using a salmonid cDNA microarray. The higher concentration was used to guide the subsequent identification of generally more subtle responses at the low concentration not sufficient to induce vitellogenin. A meta-analysis was performed with data from the present study and three similar microarray studies using different fish species and platforms. Within the generated list of presumably robust responses, several well-known estrogen-regulated genes were identified. Two genes, confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), fulfilled both the criteria of high sensitivity and robustness; the induction of the genes encoding zona pellucida protein 3 and a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (nm23). Conclusion The cross-species, cross-platform meta-analysis correctly identified several robust responses. This adds confidence to our approach used for identifying candidate biomarkers. Specifically, we propose that analyses of an nm23 gene together with zona pellucida genes may increase the possibilities to detect an exposure to low levels of estrogenic compounds in fish.
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  • Larsson, D. G. Joakim, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Release of active pharmaceutical ingredients from Indian bulk drug manufacture – environmental fate and effects on antibiotic resistance development, microbial ecosystems and vertebrate physiology
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: 2008 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, November 16-20, Tampa, USA.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Last year, we published a paper showing extraordinary high levels of several drugs in treated effluent from a plant receiving process water from about 90 bulk drug manufacturers from the Hyderabad region in India. Particularly, the levels of various fluoroquinolones (up to 31 mg/L) called for more information on the potential development of antibiotic resistance of exposed bacteria, as well as potential ecological effects on microbial ecosystems. In this study we will present the first characterization of 93 strains of bacteria sampled inside the treatment facility for their sensitivity/resistance to 39 different antibiotics. Furthermore, controlled exposure experiments suggest that the treated effluent affects the functional structure of natural freshwater microbial communities at a dilution of 1:1000. Short to medium-term exposure experiments with frogs and fish demonstrate sublethal effects of the treated effluent at similar dilutions, suggesting that expected environmental effects are not restricted to disturbed microorganism communities. Data on the fate of different pharmaceuticals in a gradient up and downstream from the treatment facility will be presented, as well as levels in drinking water wells in seven nearby villages, showing a transport of drugs via the groundwater. We conclude that the environmental impact of drug production in the Hyderabad region is of great environmental concern. We will also present summary data on the origin of active substances present in pharmaceutical products on the Swedish market, implying an international responsibility for improving the environmental pollution situation related to bulk drug production in India.
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