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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Favre P) srt2:(2020)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Favre P) > (2020)

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1.
  • Ching, C. R. K., et al. (författare)
  • What we learn about bipolar disorder from large-scale neuroimaging: Findings and future directions from theENIGMABipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MRI-derived brain measures offer a link between genes, the environment and behavior and have been widely studied in bipolar disorder (BD). However, many neuroimaging studies of BD have been underpowered, leading to varied results and uncertainty regarding effects. The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Bipolar Disorder Working Group was formed in 2012 to empower discoveries, generate consensus findings and inform future hypothesis-driven studies of BD. Through this effort, over 150 researchers from 20 countries and 55 institutions pool data and resources to produce the largest neuroimaging studies of BD ever conducted. The ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group applies standardized processing and analysis techniques to empower large-scale meta- and mega-analyses of multimodal brain MRI and improve the replicability of studies relating brain variation to clinical and genetic data. Initial BD Working Group studies reveal widespread patterns of lower cortical thickness, subcortical volume and disrupted white matter integrity associated with BD. Findings also include mapping brain alterations of common medications like lithium, symptom patterns and clinical risk profiles and have provided further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of BD. Here we discuss key findings from the BD working group, its ongoing projects and future directions for large-scale, collaborative studies of mental illness.
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2.
  • Han, L. K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Brain aging in major depressive disorder: results from the ENIGMA major depressive disorder working group
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of brain atrophy, aging-related diseases, and mortality. We examined potential advanced brain aging in adult MDD patients, and whether this process is associated with clinical characteristics in a large multicenter international dataset. We performed a mega-analysis by pooling brain measures derived from T1-weighted MRI scans from 19 samples worldwide. Healthy brain aging was estimated by predicting chronological age (18–75 years) from 7 subcortical volumes, 34 cortical thickness and 34 surface area, lateral ventricles and total intracranial volume measures separately in 952 male and 1236 female controls from the ENIGMA MDD working group. The learned model coefficients were applied to 927 male controls and 986 depressed males, and 1199 female controls and 1689 depressed females to obtain independent unbiased brain-based age predictions. The difference between predicted “brain age” and chronological age was calculated to indicate brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD). On average, MDD patients showed a higher brain-PAD of +1.08 (SE 0.22) years (Cohen’s d = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.08–0.20) compared with controls. However, this difference did not seem to be driven by specific clinical characteristics (recurrent status, remission status, antidepressant medication use, age of onset, or symptom severity). This highly powered collaborative effort showed subtle patterns of age-related structural brain abnormalities in MDD. Substantial within-group variance and overlap between groups were observed. Longitudinal studies of MDD and somatic health outcomes are needed to further assess the clinical value of these brain-PAD estimates. © 2020, The Author(s).
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3.
  • Taquet, V, et al. (författare)
  • Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) VI. Chemical evolution of sulfuretted species along the outflows driven by the low-mass protostellar binary NGC1333-IRAS4A
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims. The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the outflows driven by the NGC1333-IRAS4A protobinary system located in the Perseus cloud to constrain the physical and chemical processes at work in shocks. Methods. We observed various transitions from OCS, CS, SO, and SO2 towards NGC1333-IRAS4A in the 1.3, 2, and 3mm bands using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array and we interpreted the observations through the use of the Paris-Durham shock model. Results. The targeted species clearly show different spatial emission along the two outflows driven by IRAS4A. OCS is brighter on small and large scales along the south outflow driven by IRAS4A1, whereas SO2 is detected rather along the outflow driven by IRAS4A2 that is extended along the north east-south west direction. SO is detected at extremely high radial velocity up to +25 km s 1 relative to the source velocity, clearly allowing us to distinguish the two outflows on small scales. Column density ratio maps estimated from a rotational diagram analysis allowed us to confirm a clear gradient of the OCS/SO2 column density ratio between the IRAS4A1 and IRAS4A2 outflows. Analysis assuming non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium of four SO2 transitions towards several SiO emission peaks suggests that the observed gas should be associated with densities higher than 105 cm 3 and relatively warm (T > 100 K) temperatures in most cases. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two outflows of the IRAS4A system could be explained by a different chemical history. The outflow driven by IRAS4A1 is likely younger and more enriched in species initially formed in interstellar ices, such as OCS, and recently sputtered into the shock gas. In contrast, the longer and likely older outflow triggered by IRAS4A2 is more enriched in species that have a gas phase origin, such as SO2.
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4.
  • Adlanmerini, M., et al. (författare)
  • Mutation of Arginine 264 on ER alpha (Estrogen Receptor Alpha) Selectively Abrogates the Rapid Signaling of Estradiol in the Endothelium Without Altering Fertility
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642. ; 40:9, s. 2143-2158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: ER alpha (estrogen receptor alpha) exerts nuclear genomic actions and also rapid membrane-initiated steroid signaling. The mutation of the cysteine 451 into alanine in vivo has recently revealed the key role of this ER alpha palmitoylation site on some vasculoprotective actions of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and fertility. Here, we studied the in vivo role of the arginine 260 of ER alpha which has also been described to be involved in its E2-induced rapid signaling with PI-3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) as well as G protein in cultured cell lines. Approach and Results: We generated a mouse model harboring a point mutation of the murine counterpart of this arginine into alanine (R264A-ER alpha). In contrast to theC451A-ER alpha, theR264A-ER alpha females are fertile with standard hormonal serum levels and normal control of hypothalamus-pituitary ovarian axis. Although R264A-ER alpha protein abundance was normal, the well-described membrane ER alpha-dependent actions of estradiol, such as the rapid dilation of mesenteric arteries and the acceleration of endothelial repair of carotid, were abrogated inR264A-ER alpha mice. In striking contrast, E2-regulated gene expression was highly preserved in the uterus and the aorta, revealing intact nuclear/genomic actions in response to E2. Consistently, 2 recognized nuclear ER alpha-dependent actions of E2, namely atheroma prevention and flow-mediated arterial remodeling were totally preserved. Conclusions: These data underline the exquisite role of arginine 264 of ER alpha for endothelial membrane-initiated steroid signaling effects of E2 but not for nuclear/genomic actions. This provides the first model of fertile mouse with no overt endocrine abnormalities with specific loss-of-function of rapid ER alpha signaling in vascular functions.
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5.
  • Blondel, A., et al. (författare)
  • The SuperFGD Prototype charged particle beam tests
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 15:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel scintillator detector, the SuperFGD, has been selected as the main neutrino target for an upgrade of the T2K experiment ND280 near detector. The detector design will allow nearly 47r coverage for neutrino interactions at the near detector and will provide lower energy thresholds, significantly reducing systematic errors for the experiment. The SuperFGD is made of optically-isolated scintillator cubes of size 10 x 10 x 10 mm(3), providing the required spatial and energy resolution to reduce systematic uncertainties for future T2K runs. The SuperFGD for T2K will have close to two million cubes in a 1920 x 560 x 1840 mm(3) volume. A prototype made of 24 x 8 x 48 cubes was tested at a charged particle beamline at the CERN PS facility. The SuperFGD Prototype was instrumented with readout electronics similar to the future implementation for T2K. Results on electronics and detector response are reported in this paper, along with a discussion of the 3D reconstruction capabilities of this type of detector. Several physics analyses with the prototype data are also discussed, including a study of stopping protons.
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