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Sökning: WFRF:(Forsyth M)

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1.
  • Berthomier, M., et al. (författare)
  • Alfvén : magnetosphere-ionosphere connection explorers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435. ; 33:2-3, s. 445-489
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aurorae are dynamic, luminous displays that grace the night skies of Earth's high latitude regions. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is their ultimate energy source, but the chain of plasma physical processes leading to auroral displays is complex. The special conditions at the interface between the solar wind-driven magnetosphere and the ionospheric environment at the top of Earth's atmosphere play a central role. In this Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) persistent electric fields directed along the magnetic field accelerate magnetospheric electrons to the high energies needed to excite luminosity when they hit the atmosphere. The "ideal magnetohydrodynamics" description of space plasmas which is useful in much of the magnetosphere cannot be used to understand the AAR. The AAR has been studied by a small number of single spacecraft missions which revealed an environment rich in wave-particle interactions, plasma turbulence, and nonlinear acceleration processes, acting on a variety of spatio-temporal scales. The pioneering 4-spacecraft Cluster magnetospheric research mission is now fortuitously visiting the AAR, but its particle instruments are too slow to allow resolve many of the key plasma physics phenomena. The Alfv,n concept is designed specifically to take the next step in studying the aurora, by making the crucial high-time resolution, multi-scale measurements in the AAR, needed to address the key science questions of auroral plasma physics. The new knowledge that the mission will produce will find application in studies of the Sun, the processes that accelerate the solar wind and that produce aurora on other planets.
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2.
  • Hackshaw, A, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Effectiveness of Adjuvant Goserelin in Premenopausal Women With Early Breast Cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE. - 0027-8874. ; 101:5, s. 341-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systematic reviews have found that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists are effective in treating premenopausal women with early breast cancer.We conducted long-term follow-up (median 12 years) of 2706 women in the Zoladex In Premenopausal Patients (ZIPP), which evaluated the LHRH agonist goserelin (3.6 mg injection every 4 weeks) and tamoxifen (20 or 40 mg daily), given for 2 years. Women were randomly assigned to receive each therapy alone, both, or neither, after primary therapy (surgery with or without radiotherapy/chemotherapy). Hazard ratios and absolute risk differences were used to assess the effect of goserelin treatment on event-free survival (breast cancer recurrence, new tumor or death), overall survival, risk of recurrence of breast cancer, and risk of dying from breast cancer, in the presence or absence of tamoxifen.Fifteen years after the initiation of treatment, for every 100 women not given tamoxifen, there were 13.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.5 to 19.4) fewer events among those who were treated with goserelin compared with those who were not treated with goserelin. However, among women who did take tamoxifen, there were 2.8 fewer events (95% CI = 7.7 fewer to 2.0 more) per 100 women treated with goserelin compared with those not treated with goserelin. The risk of dying from breast cancer was also reduced at 15 years: For every 100 women given goserelin, the number of breast cancer deaths was lower by 2.6 (95% CI = 6.6 fewer to 2.1 more) and 8.5 (95% CI = 2.2 to 13.7) in those who did and did not take tamoxifen, respectively, although in the former group the difference was not statistically significant.Two years of goserelin treatment was as effective as 2 years of tamoxifen treatment 15 years after starting therapy. In women who did not take tamoxifen, there was a large benefit of goserelin treatment on survival and recurrence, and in women who did take tamoxifen, there was a marginal potential benefit on these outcomes when goserelin was added.
3.
  • Nakamura, R., et al. (författare)
  • Low- altitude electron acceleration due to multiple flow bursts in the magnetotail
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276. ; 41:3, s. 777-784
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • At 10:00 UT on 25 February 2008, Cluster 1 spacecraft crossed the near-midnight auroral zone, at about 2R(E) altitude, while two of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft, THD and THE, observed multiple flow bursts on the near-conjugate plasma sheet field lines. The flow shear pattern at THEMIS was consistent with the vortical motion at duskside of a localized flow channel. Coinciding in time with the flow bursts, Cluster 1 observed bursts of counterstreaming electrons with mostly low energies (441eV), accompanied by short time scale (<5s) magnetic field disturbances embedded in flow-associated field-aligned current systems. This conjugate event not only confirms the idea that the plasma sheet flows are the driver of the kinetic Alfven waves accelerating the low-energy electrons but is a unique observation of disturbances in the high-altitude auroral region relevant to the multiple plasma sheet flows. Key Points <list list-type="bulleted"> <list-item id="grl51326-li-0001">First observation of multiple flow signatures on near-conjugate flux tubes <list-item id="grl51326-li-0002">Low-energy electron profile suggests Alfvenic acceleration due to fast flow <list-item id="grl51326-li-0003">Multiple flow bursts are obtained to extend over large radial distance in tail
4.
  • Shah, F. U., et al. (författare)
  • Halogen-free chelated orthoborate ionic liquids and organic ionic plastic crystals
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry. - 0959-9428. ; 22:14, s. 6928-6938
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Five halogen-free orthoborate salts comprised of three different cations (cholinium, pyrrolidinium and imidazolium) and two orthoborate anions, bis(mandelato)borate and bis(salicylato)borate, were synthesised and characterised by DSC, X-ray diffraction and NMR. DSC measurements revealed that glass transition points of these orthoborate salts are in the temperature range from −18 to −2 °C. In addition, it was found that [EMPy][BScB] and [EMIm][BScB] salts have solid–solid phase transitions below their melting points, i.e. they exhibit typical features of plastic crystals. Salts of the bis(salicylato)borate anion [BScB]− have higher melting points compared with corresponding salts of the bis(mandelato)borate anion [BMB]−. Single crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography (for [Chol][BScB] crystals) and solid-state multinuclear (13C, 11B and 15N) NMR spectroscopy were employed for the structural characterisation of [Chol][BScB], [EMPy][BScB] and [EMIm][BScB], which are solids at room temperature: a strong interaction between [BScB]− anions and [Chol]+ cations was identified as (i) hydrogen bonding between OH of [Chol]+ and carbonyl groups of [BScB]− and (ii) as the inductive C–Hπ interaction. In the other salt, [EMIm][BScB], anions exhibit ππ stacking in combination with C–Hπ interactions with [EMIm]+ cations. These interactions were not identified in [EMPy][BScB] probably because of the lack of aromaticity in cations of the latter system. Our data on the formation of a lanthanum complex with bis(salicylato)borate in the liquid mixture of La3+(aq) with [Chol][BScB] suggest that this class of novel ILs can be potentially used in the extraction processes of metal ions of rare earth elements.
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8.
  • Adebahr, J, et al. (författare)
  • Ion and Solvent Dynamics in Gel Electrolytes Based on Ethylene Oxide Grafted Acrylate Polymers
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. ; 106:47, s. 12119-12123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multinuclear pulsed field gradient NMR measurements and rheological viscosity measurements were performed on three series of polymer gel electrolytes. The gels were based on a lithium salt electrolyte swollen into a copolymer matrix comprising an acrylate backbone and ethylene oxide side chains. In each series the side chains differed in length and number, but the acrylate-to-ethylene oxide ratio was kept constant. It was found that the self-diffusion coefficient of the cations was much lower than that of the anions, and that it decreased rapidly when the side chains got longer. In contrast, the self-diffusion coefficient of the anions was found to be independent of chain length. In the gel electrolytes, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules are relatively constant despite an increased viscosity with increasing length of the side chains. However, in salt-free gels made for comparison, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules decreased with increasing length of the side chains, which is consistent with an increased viscosity.
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10.
  • Adebahr, J, et al. (författare)
  • Ion and solvent dynamics in gel electrolytes based on ethylene oxide grafted acrylate polymers
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B. - The American Chemical Society. - 1520-5207. ; 106:47, s. 12119-12123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multinuclear pulsed field gradient NMR measurements and theological viscosity measurements were performed on three series of polymer gel electrolytes. The gels were based on a lithium salt electrolyte swollen into a copolymer matrix comprising an acrylate backbone and ethylene oxide side chains. In each series the side chains differed in length and number, but the acrylate-to-ethylene oxide ratio was kept constant. It was found that the self-diffusion coefficient of the cations was much lower than that of the anions, and that it decreased rapidly when the side chains got longer. In contrast, the self-diffusion coefficient of the anions was found to be independent of chain length. In the gel electrolytes, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules are relatively constant despite an increased viscosity with increasing length of the side chains. However, in saltfree gels made for comparison, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules decreased with, increasing length of the side chains, which is consistent with an increased viscosity.
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