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Sökning: WFRF:(Forsyth M)

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  • Berthomier, M., et al. (författare)
  • Alfvén : magnetosphere-ionosphere connection explorers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435. ; 33:2-3, s. 445-489
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aurorae are dynamic, luminous displays that grace the night skies of Earth's high latitude regions. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is their ultimate energy source, but the chain of plasma physical processes leading to auroral displays is complex. The special conditions at the interface between the solar wind-driven magnetosphere and the ionospheric environment at the top of Earth's atmosphere play a central role. In this Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) persistent electric fields directed along the magnetic field accelerate magnetospheric electrons to the high energies needed to excite luminosity when they hit the atmosphere. The "ideal magnetohydrodynamics" description of space plasmas which is useful in much of the magnetosphere cannot be used to understand the AAR. The AAR has been studied by a small number of single spacecraft missions which revealed an environment rich in wave-particle interactions, plasma turbulence, and nonlinear acceleration processes, acting on a variety of spatio-temporal scales. The pioneering 4-spacecraft Cluster magnetospheric research mission is now fortuitously visiting the AAR, but its particle instruments are too slow to allow resolve many of the key plasma physics phenomena. The Alfv,n concept is designed specifically to take the next step in studying the aurora, by making the crucial high-time resolution, multi-scale measurements in the AAR, needed to address the key science questions of auroral plasma physics. The new knowledge that the mission will produce will find application in studies of the Sun, the processes that accelerate the solar wind and that produce aurora on other planets.
  • Hackshaw, A, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Effectiveness of Adjuvant Goserelin in Premenopausal Women With Early Breast Cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE. - 0027-8874. ; 101:5, s. 341-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systematic reviews have found that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists are effective in treating premenopausal women with early breast cancer.We conducted long-term follow-up (median 12 years) of 2706 women in the Zoladex In Premenopausal Patients (ZIPP), which evaluated the LHRH agonist goserelin (3.6 mg injection every 4 weeks) and tamoxifen (20 or 40 mg daily), given for 2 years. Women were randomly assigned to receive each therapy alone, both, or neither, after primary therapy (surgery with or without radiotherapy/chemotherapy). Hazard ratios and absolute risk differences were used to assess the effect of goserelin treatment on event-free survival (breast cancer recurrence, new tumor or death), overall survival, risk of recurrence of breast cancer, and risk of dying from breast cancer, in the presence or absence of tamoxifen.Fifteen years after the initiation of treatment, for every 100 women not given tamoxifen, there were 13.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.5 to 19.4) fewer events among those who were treated with goserelin compared with those who were not treated with goserelin. However, among women who did take tamoxifen, there were 2.8 fewer events (95% CI = 7.7 fewer to 2.0 more) per 100 women treated with goserelin compared with those not treated with goserelin. The risk of dying from breast cancer was also reduced at 15 years: For every 100 women given goserelin, the number of breast cancer deaths was lower by 2.6 (95% CI = 6.6 fewer to 2.1 more) and 8.5 (95% CI = 2.2 to 13.7) in those who did and did not take tamoxifen, respectively, although in the former group the difference was not statistically significant.Two years of goserelin treatment was as effective as 2 years of tamoxifen treatment 15 years after starting therapy. In women who did not take tamoxifen, there was a large benefit of goserelin treatment on survival and recurrence, and in women who did take tamoxifen, there was a marginal potential benefit on these outcomes when goserelin was added.
  • Adebahr, J, et al. (författare)
  • Ion and solvent dynamics in gel electrolytes based on ethylene oxide grafted acrylate polymers
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry B. - 1089-5647. ; 106:47, s. 12119-12123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multinuclear pulsed field gradient NMR measurements and theological viscosity measurements were performed on three series of polymer gel electrolytes. The gels were based on a lithium salt electrolyte swollen into a copolymer matrix comprising an acrylate backbone and ethylene oxide side chains. In each series the side chains differed in length and number, but the acrylate-to-ethylene oxide ratio was kept constant. It was found that the self-diffusion coefficient of the cations was much lower than that of the anions, and that it decreased rapidly when the side chains got longer. In contrast, the self-diffusion coefficient of the anions was found to be independent of chain length. In the gel electrolytes, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules are relatively constant despite an increased viscosity with increasing length of the side chains. However, in saltfree gels made for comparison, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules decreased with, increasing length of the side chains, which is consistent with an increased viscosity.
  • Adebahr, Josefina, et al. (författare)
  • Li-7 NMR measurements of polymer gel electrolytes
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Solid State Ionics. - Elsevier. - 0167-2738 .- 1872-7689. ; 147:3-4, s. 303-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ion conducting polymer gels prepared from (ethylene oxide)(n) grafted methacrylates, ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma butyrolactone (gBL), and lithium hexafluorophosphate are studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, This study shows that there are at least two possible lithium sites with different mobility. The lithium-ions with lower mobility dominate at room temperature, but this is changed as the temperature is increased. The NMR results also show that the Li-7 spin-spin relaxation time decreases with increasing length of the grafted ethylene oxide side chains, indicating a stronger interaction between the polymer and the Li-ions, and hence, a lower mobility of the Li-ions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Adebahr, J, et al. (författare)
  • Lithium coordination and mobility in gel electrolytes based on an acrylate polymer with ethylene oxide side chains
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry. - 0959-9428. ; 13:4, s. 814-817
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multinuclear NMR has been used to investigate the structure and mobility of a series of polymer gel electrolytes. The co-polymers used as matrixes in the gels have acrylate backbones and side chains of ethylene oxide, where the length of the side chains has been varied, while the ratio of acrylate to ethylene oxide has been kept constant. The electrolyte is a mixture of lithium perchlorate and two solvents, ethylene carbonate and gamma butyrolactone. 13C spectra of the different gel electrolytes shows that both solvents interact with the salt, and that the strength of the interaction increases with decreasing length of the polymer side chains. It also appears that the lithium ions show no selectivity between the two types of solvent. Furthermore, the lithium chemical shift moves progressively upfield with increasing length of the side chains, showing a gradual change in interaction from lithium–solvent to lithium–(ethylene oxide).
  • Bellone, Rebecca R, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping and mutation analysis of TRPM1 : a candidate gene for leopard complex (LP) spotting and congenital stationary night blindness in horses
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics. - 1473-9550. ; 9:3, s. 193-207
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leopard Complex spotting occurs in several breeds of horses and is caused by an incompletely dominant allele (LP). Homozygosity for LP is also associated with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in Appaloosa horses. Previously, LP was mapped to a 6 cm region on ECA1 containing the candidate gene TRPM1 (Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel, Subfamily M, Member 1) and decreased expression of this gene, measured by qRT-PCR, was identified as the likely cause of both spotting and ocular phenotypes. This study describes investigations for a mutation causing or associated with the Leopard Complex and CSNB phenotype in horses. Re-sequencing of the gene and associated splice sites within the 105 624 bp genomic region of TRPM1 led to the discovery of 18 SNPs. Most of the SNPs did not have a predictive value for the presence of LP. However, one SNP (ECA1:108,249,293 C>T) found within intron 11 had a strong (P < 0.0005), but not complete, association with LP and CSNB and thus is a good marker but unlikely to be causative. To further localize the association, 70 SNPs spanning over two Mb including the TRPM1 gene were genotyped in 192 horses from three different breeds segregating for LP. A single 173 kb haplotype associated with LP and CSNB (ECA1: 108,197,355- 108,370,150) was identified. Illumina sequencing of 300 kb surrounding this haplotype revealed 57 SNP variants. Based on their localization within expressed sequences or regions of high sequence conservation across mammals, six of these SNPs were considered to be the most likely candidate mutations. While the precise function of TRPM1 remains to be elucidated, this work solidifies its functional role in both pigmentation and night vision. Further, this work has identified several potential regulatory elements of the TRPM1 gene that should be investigated further in this and other species.
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