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1.
  • Jacobsson, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants near the MGAT1 gene are associated with body weight, BMI and fatty acid metabolism among adults and children
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565. ; 36:1, s. 119-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Recently a genome-wide association analysis from five European populations identified a polymorphism located downstream of the mannosyl-(?-1,3)-glycoprotein-?-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (MGAT1) gene that was associated with body-weight. In the present study, associations between MGAT1 variants combined with obesity and insulin measurements were investigated in three cohorts. Levels of fatty acids and estimated measures of ? desaturases were also investigated among adult men.Design: Six polymorphisms downstream of MGAT1 were genotyped in a cross-sectional cohort of 1152 Swedish men. Three polymorphisms were further analyzed in a case-control study of 1076 Swedish children and in a cross-sectional study of 2249 Greek children.Results: Three polymorphisms, rs12186500 (odds ratio (OR): 1.892, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-2.895, P=0.003), rs1021001 (OR: 2.102, 95% CI: 1.280-3.455, P=0.003) and rs4285184 (OR: 1.587, 95% CI: 1.024-2.459, P=0.038) were associated with a higher prevalence of obesity among the adult men and a trend for obesity was observed for rs4285184 among the Swedish (OR: 1.205, 95% CI: 0.987-1.471, P=0.067) and Greek children (OR: 1.192, 95%CI: 0.978-1.454, P=0.081). Association with body weight was observed for rs12186500 (P=0.017) and rs4285184 (P=0.024) among the men. The rs1021001 and rs4285184 were also associated with body mass index (BMI) in the two Swedish cohorts and similar trends were observed among the Greek children. The combined effect size for rs1021001 and rs4285184 on BMI z-score from a meta-analysis was 0.233 (95% CI:0.093-0.373, P=0.001) and 0.147 (95% CI:0.057-0.236, P=0.001), respectively. We further observed associations between the genetic variants and fatty acids (P<0.039) and estimated measures of ? desaturases (P<0.040), as well as interactions for rs12186500 (P<0.019) with an effect on BMI. No association was found with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance in any cohort but increased insulin levels, insulin response and decreased insulin sensitivity were observed among the children (P<0.038).Conclusion: Genetic variants downstream MGAT1 seem to influence susceptibility to obesity. Moreover, these genetic variants affect the levels of serum unsaturated fatty acids and ? desaturase indices, variables previously shown to correlate with obesity.
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2.
  • Adamsson, Viola, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects : a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820. ; 269:2, s. 150-159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on cardiovascular risk factors.Design and subjects: In a randomizedcontrolled trial (NORDIET) conducted in Sweden, 88 mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects were randomly assigned to an ad libitum ND or control diet (subjects' usual Western diet) for 6 weeks. Participants in the ND group were provided with all meals and foods. Primary outcome measurements were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). The ND was rich in high-fibre plant foods, fruits, berries, vegetables, whole grains, rapeseed oil, nuts, fish and low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars and saturated fats.Results: The ND contained 27%, 52%, 19% and 2% of energy from fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol, respectively. In total, 86 of 88 subjects randomly assigned to diet completed the study. Compared with controls, there was a decrease in plasma cholesterol (-16%, P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (-21%, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-5%, P < 0.01), LDL/HDL (-14%, P < 0.01) and apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA1 (-1%, P < 0.05) in the ND group. The ND reduced insulin (-9%, P = 0.01) and systolic BP by -6.6 ± 13.2 mmHg (-5%, P < 0.05) compared with the control diet. Despite the ad libitum nature of the ND, body weight decreased after 6 weeks in the ND compared with the control group (-4%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for weight change, the significant differences between groups remained for blood lipids, but not for insulin sensitivity or BP. There were no significant differences in diastolic BP or triglyceride or glucose concentrations.Conclusions:A healthy ND improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure at clinically relevant levels in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
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3.
  • Adamsson, Viola, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a Nordic diet on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized controlled study
  • 2009
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Apart from lipid-lowering drugs, dietary changes can also reduce plasma LDL-C concentrations. No studies have been conducted to investigate the clinical effects of a diet with traditional foods originating from the Nordic countries. Method: In a randomised, controlled parallel-group intervention study 88 mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomized to either an ad libitum Nordic diet (ND) or a control diet (CD) for 6 weeks. All meals and foods were provided to the participants in the ND group. Primary outcome measure was LDL-cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure, plasma insulin and glucose concentrations. The ND was a high-fibre diet rich in plant foods (fruit, berries, vegetables, root vegetables, whole grain cereals and legumes), vegetable fats (rapeseed oil and nuts) and fatty fish, low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars, saturated fats and red meats. Result: 86 subjects completed the study. Distribution of carbohydrates, fat and protein (E%) in ND was 54, 27, 19, respectively. ND lowered plasma total cholesterol 0.98±0.75 mmol/l (-16%), LDL-C by 0.83±0.67 mmol/l (-21%), HDL-C 0.08±0.23 mmol/l (-5%), including reduced LDL/HDL ratio by -0.42±0.57 (-14%) (all p<0.01 versus controls). Insulin concentrations decreased by 0.51± 2.25 (-9%, p=0.01) and systolic blood pressure by 7±13 mmHg (-5%, P<0.01) compared to controls. Despite diets were eaten ad libitum, body weight decreased by 3.0 kg in the ND (P<0.001). No significant differences were found for diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides or plasma glucose. Conclusion: A Nordic diet improves blood lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity as well as lowering blood pressure to a clinically significant extent in hypercholesterolemic subjects.
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4.
  • Andersson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Inventering och modellering av fisk- och kräftdjurssamhället i Stigfjorden sommaren 2012
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Under 31 juli-3 augusti 2012 utförde Kustlaboratoriet vid SLU Aqua ett inventeringsfiske med småryssjor i Stigfjorden mellan Orust och Tjörn med syfte att beskriva fisksamhället i fjorden och att kartlägga viktiga fiskhabitat. Totalt fiskades 80 stationer på djup från ytan ner till 20 m. Området uppvisade ovanligt höga tätheter av juvenil rödspotta, gråsej och torsk. Även fångsterna av stensnultra och tånglake var höga, och bland kräftdjuren dominerade strandkrabban. Resultaten från Stigfjorden jämförs med resultat från tidigare och samtida undersökningar av samma karaktär. Den rumsliga fördelningen av olika arter i förhållande till habitatet beskrevs statistiskt med hjälp av generella additiva modeller, där fångsterna i ryssjorna relateras till data på olika miljövariabler. De statistiska modellerna i kombination med kartor över miljövariabler i området användes sedan för att i GIS producera heltäckande kartor över potentiella habitat för arterna. De arter som modellerades var torsk <18 cm, torsk >18 cm, ål, rödspotta, vitling, stensnultra, tånglake och strandkrabba. Modellernas förklaringsgrad var generellt god, och vattendjup utgjorde den variabel som var viktigast för fördelningen av de flesta arter. Ungtorsk och rödspotta förekom i högst tätheter i de djupare delarna av fjorden, medan gulål, tånglake och strandkrabba, där de två förstnämnda tillsammans med torsken är rödlistade, främst återfanns i de grunda delarna av fjorden. Sammantaget tyder resultaten på att Stigfjorden håller viktiga livsmiljöer för ett flertal fiskarter, framför allt som uppväxtområde för arter som t ex rödspotta och gråsej.
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6.
  • Bergström, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea - A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Estuarine Coastal And Shelf Science. - 0272-7714. ; 163, s. 134-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been shown to induce trophic cascades with resulting eutrophication symptoms through regulation of invertebrate grazers. Despite its potential significance for the coastal food web, little is known about its life history and population ecology. This paper provides a description of life history traits, migration patterns and spatiotemporal development of the species in the Baltic Sea during the past decades, and tests the hypothesis that stickleback may have a negative impact on populations of coastal predatory fish. Offshore and coastal data during the last 30 years show that stickleback has increased fourfold in the Bothnian Sea, 45-fold in the Central Baltic Sea and sevenfold in the Southern Baltic Sea. The abundances are similar in the two northern basins, and two orders of magnitude lower in the Southern Baltic Sea. The coastward spawning migration of sticklebacks from offshore areas peaks in early May, with most spawners being two years of age at a mean length of 65 mm. The early juvenile stage is spent at the coast, whereafter sticklebacks perform a seaward feeding migration in early autumn at a size of around 35 mm. A negative spatial relation between the abundance of stickleback and early life stages of perch and pike at coastal spawning areas was observed in spatial survey data, indicating strong interactions between the species. A negative temporal relationship was observed also between adult perch and stickleback in coastal fish monitoring programmes supporting the hypothesis that stickleback may have negative population level effects on coastal fish predators. The recent increase in stickleback populations in different basins of the Baltic Sea in combination with negative spatiotemporal patterns and previously observed interactions between stickleback and coastal predatory fish suggests that this species may have gained a key role in the coastal food webs of the Baltic Sea. Through its migrations, stickleback may also constitute an important vector linking coastal and open sea ecosystem dynamics. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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7.
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8.
  • Bähr, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • ETUCE and the development of new technologies in education
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: A voice for European teachers : 30 years of ETUCE action for Europe's teachers and education. - Brussles : European Trade Union Committee for Education. ; s. 261-266
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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9.
  • Caruso, Vanni, et al. (författare)
  • mRNA GPR162 changes are associated with decreased food intake in rat, and its human genetic variants with impairments in glucose homeostasis in two Swedish cohorts
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Gene. - 0378-1119. ; 581:2, s. 139-145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of integral membrane proteins mediating intercellular interactions of fundamental physiological importance for survival including regulation of food intake, blood pressure, and hormonal sensing signaling, among other roles. Homeostatic alterations in the physiological status of GPCRs are often associated with underlying causes of disease, and to date, several orphan GPCRs are still uncharacterized. Findings from our previous study demonstrate that the Rhodopsin family protein GPR162 is widely expressed in GABAergic as well as other neurons within the mouse hippocampus, whereas extensive expression is observed in hypothalamus, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area, regions strictly interconnected and involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and hedonic feeding. In this study, we provide a further anatomical characterization of GPR162 in mouse brain via in situ hybridization as well as detailed mRNA expression in a panel of rat tissues complementing a specie-specific mapping of the receptor. We also provide an attempt to demonstrate a functional implication of GPR162 in food intake-related behavior via antisense knockdown studies. Furthermore, we performed human genetic studies in which for the first time, variants of the GPR162 gene were associated with impairments in glucose homeostasis.
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10.
  • Darmanis, Spyros, et al. (författare)
  • Multiplexed solid-phase proximity ligation assays: Highly specific and parallel protein measurements with DNA sequencing readout
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Identification and validation of protein biomarkers is a very important step towards the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease, early diagnosis and efficient patient treatment. To carry out this task, methods are needed that would allow us to mine the proteome with sufficient sensitivity and specificity in large sets of samples. We present herein the development of a Multiplexed Proximity Ligation Assay (MultiPLAy), to facilitate efficient protein profiling in a parallel, sensitive and specific manner. We showed that for the simultaneous analysis of 35 proteins MultiPLAy exhibited an improved sensitivity over conventional sandwich assays as well as a smaller susceptibility to background signal increase in the transition from singleplex to multiplex. We used MultiPLAy to identify putative biomarkers in two separate sample cohorts of colorectal cancer (CRC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and with the use a novel multivariate analysis approach were able to identify new, as well as already known diagnostic biomarkers. Furthermore we were able to combine MultiPLAy with the use of next-generation sequencing allowing for the first time digital recording of protein profiles in blood. We demonstrated good reproducibility of MultiPLAy coupled to next-generation sequencing, as well as a satisfactory correlation to standard real-time PCR readout. We conclude that MultiPLAy has great potential as a basis for highly multiplexed protein detection assays that can be utilized for the identification of large numbers of proteins or protein variants. This will allow extensive validation of protein expression patterns in biobanked samples and in prospective studies, and can provide a much-needed platform for efficient validation of diagnostic markers for clinical use. 
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