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1.
  • Jacobsson, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants near the MGAT1 gene are associated with body weight, BMI and fatty acid metabolism among adults and children
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565. ; 36:1, s. 119-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Recently a genome-wide association analysis from five European populations identified a polymorphism located downstream of the mannosyl-(α-1,3)-glycoprotein-β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (MGAT1) gene that was associated with body-weight. In the present study, associations between MGAT1 variants combined with obesity and insulin measurements were investigated in three cohorts. Levels of fatty acids and estimated measures of Δ desaturases were also investigated among adult men.Design: Six polymorphisms downstream of MGAT1 were genotyped in a cross-sectional cohort of 1152 Swedish men. Three polymorphisms were further analyzed in a case-control study of 1076 Swedish children and in a cross-sectional study of 2249 Greek children.Results: Three polymorphisms, rs12186500 (odds ratio (OR): 1.892, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-2.895, P=0.003), rs1021001 (OR: 2.102, 95% CI: 1.280-3.455, P=0.003) and rs4285184 (OR: 1.587, 95% CI: 1.024-2.459, P=0.038) were associated with a higher prevalence of obesity among the adult men and a trend for obesity was observed for rs4285184 among the Swedish (OR: 1.205, 95% CI: 0.987-1.471, P=0.067) and Greek children (OR: 1.192, 95%CI: 0.978-1.454, P=0.081). Association with body weight was observed for rs12186500 (P=0.017) and rs4285184 (P=0.024) among the men. The rs1021001 and rs4285184 were also associated with body mass index (BMI) in the two Swedish cohorts and similar trends were observed among the Greek children. The combined effect size for rs1021001 and rs4285184 on BMI z-score from a meta-analysis was 0.233 (95% CI:0.093-0.373, P=0.001) and 0.147 (95% CI:0.057-0.236, P=0.001), respectively. We further observed associations between the genetic variants and fatty acids (P<0.039) and estimated measures of Δ desaturases (P<0.040), as well as interactions for rs12186500 (P<0.019) with an effect on BMI. No association was found with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance in any cohort but increased insulin levels, insulin response and decreased insulin sensitivity were observed among the children (P<0.038).Conclusion: Genetic variants downstream MGAT1 seem to influence susceptibility to obesity. Moreover, these genetic variants affect the levels of serum unsaturated fatty acids and Δ desaturase indices, variables previously shown to correlate with obesity.
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2.
  • Adamsson, Viola, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects : a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820. ; 269:2, s. 150-159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on cardiovascular risk factors.Design and subjects: In a randomizedcontrolled trial (NORDIET) conducted in Sweden, 88 mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects were randomly assigned to an ad libitum ND or control diet (subjects' usual Western diet) for 6 weeks. Participants in the ND group were provided with all meals and foods. Primary outcome measurements were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). The ND was rich in high-fibre plant foods, fruits, berries, vegetables, whole grains, rapeseed oil, nuts, fish and low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars and saturated fats.Results: The ND contained 27%, 52%, 19% and 2% of energy from fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol, respectively. In total, 86 of 88 subjects randomly assigned to diet completed the study. Compared with controls, there was a decrease in plasma cholesterol (-16%, P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (-21%, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-5%, P < 0.01), LDL/HDL (-14%, P < 0.01) and apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA1 (-1%, P < 0.05) in the ND group. The ND reduced insulin (-9%, P = 0.01) and systolic BP by -6.6 ± 13.2 mmHg (-5%, P < 0.05) compared with the control diet. Despite the ad libitum nature of the ND, body weight decreased after 6 weeks in the ND compared with the control group (-4%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for weight change, the significant differences between groups remained for blood lipids, but not for insulin sensitivity or BP. There were no significant differences in diastolic BP or triglyceride or glucose concentrations.Conclusions:A healthy ND improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure at clinically relevant levels in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
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3.
  • Adamsson, Viola, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a Nordic diet on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized controlled study
  • 2009
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Apart from lipid-lowering drugs, dietary changes can also reduce plasma LDL-C concentrations. No studies have been conducted to investigate the clinical effects of a diet with traditional foods originating from the Nordic countries. Method: In a randomised, controlled parallel-group intervention study 88 mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomized to either an ad libitum Nordic diet (ND) or a control diet (CD) for 6 weeks. All meals and foods were provided to the participants in the ND group. Primary outcome measure was LDL-cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure, plasma insulin and glucose concentrations. The ND was a high-fibre diet rich in plant foods (fruit, berries, vegetables, root vegetables, whole grain cereals and legumes), vegetable fats (rapeseed oil and nuts) and fatty fish, low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars, saturated fats and red meats. Result: 86 subjects completed the study. Distribution of carbohydrates, fat and protein (E%) in ND was 54, 27, 19, respectively. ND lowered plasma total cholesterol 0.98±0.75 mmol/l (-16%), LDL-C by 0.83±0.67 mmol/l (-21%), HDL-C 0.08±0.23 mmol/l (-5%), including reduced LDL/HDL ratio by -0.42±0.57 (-14%) (all p<0.01 versus controls). Insulin concentrations decreased by 0.51± 2.25 (-9%, p=0.01) and systolic blood pressure by 7±13 mmHg (-5%, P<0.01) compared to controls. Despite diets were eaten ad libitum, body weight decreased by 3.0 kg in the ND (P<0.001). No significant differences were found for diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides or plasma glucose. Conclusion: A Nordic diet improves blood lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity as well as lowering blood pressure to a clinically significant extent in hypercholesterolemic subjects.
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5.
  • Bähr, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • ETUCE and the development of new technologies in education
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: A voice for European teachers : 30 years of ETUCE action for Europe's teachers and education. - Brussles : European Trade Union Committee for Education. ; s. 261-266
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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6.
  • Darmanis, Spyros, et al. (författare)
  • Multiplexed solid-phase proximity ligation assays: Highly specific and parallel protein measurements with DNA sequencing readout
  • nnnn
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Identification and validation of protein biomarkers is a very important step towards the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease, early diagnosis and efficient patient treatment. To carry out this task, methods are needed that would allow us to mine the proteome with sufficient sensitivity and specificity in large sets of samples. We present herein the development of a Multiplexed Proximity Ligation Assay (MultiPLAy), to facilitate efficient protein profiling in a parallel, sensitive and specific manner. We showed that for the simultaneous analysis of 35 proteins MultiPLAy exhibited an improved sensitivity over conventional sandwich assays as well as a smaller susceptibility to background signal increase in the transition from singleplex to multiplex. We used MultiPLAy to identify putative biomarkers in two separate sample cohorts of colorectal cancer (CRC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and with the use a novel multivariate analysis approach were able to identify new, as well as already known diagnostic biomarkers. Furthermore we were able to combine MultiPLAy with the use of next-generation sequencing allowing for the first time digital recording of protein profiles in blood. We demonstrated good reproducibility of MultiPLAy coupled to next-generation sequencing, as well as a satisfactory correlation to standard real-time PCR readout. We conclude that MultiPLAy has great potential as a basis for highly multiplexed protein detection assays that can be utilized for the identification of large numbers of proteins or protein variants. This will allow extensive validation of protein expression patterns in biobanked samples and in prospective studies, and can provide a much-needed platform for efficient validation of diagnostic markers for clinical use. 
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7.
  • Darmanis, Spyros, et al. (författare)
  • ProteinSeq : high-performance proteomic analyses by proximity ligation and next generation sequencing
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 6:9, s. e25583
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite intense interest, methods that provide enhanced sensitivity and specificity in parallel measurements of candidate protein biomarkers in numerous samples have been lacking. We present herein a multiplex proximity ligation assay with readout via realtime PCR or DNA sequencing (ProteinSeq). We demonstrate improved sensitivity over conventional sandwich assays for simultaneous analysis of sets of 35 proteins in 5 μl of blood plasma. Importantly, we observe a minimal tendency to increased background with multiplexing, compared to a sandwich assay, suggesting that higher levels of multiplexing are possible. We used ProteinSeq to analyze proteins in plasma samples from cardiovascular disease (CVD) patient cohorts and matched controls. Three proteins, namely P-selectin, Cystatin-B and Kallikrein-6, were identified as putative diagnostic biomarkers for CVD. The latter two have not been previously reported in the literature and their potential roles must be validated in larger patient cohorts. We conclude that ProteinSeq is promising for screening large numbers of proteins and samples while the technology can provide a much-needed platform for validation of diagnostic markers in biobank samples and in clinical use. 
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8.
  • Deakin Crick, Ruth, et al. (författare)
  • Developing an instrument to measure learning to learn : Paper presented at the Association for Educational Assessment Europe 8th Annual Conference in Stockholm in November 2007
  • 2007
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a growing interest in learning to learn in a European context. European Union initiatives have resulted in describing the competence of learning to learn in the framework for competencies for lifelong learning. Related to this has also been a wish to find ways to measure learning to learn. An Expert Group initiated by the European Commission developed a proposal to organise a pilot project on learning to learn. The group identified three interesting research projects which could be used in the further work to develop a European pilot study on learning to learn: an instrument to test learning to learn developed by the University of Helsinki, the Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory developed by the University of Bristol and the tests on cross-curricular skills developed by the University of Amsterdam. The Expert Group also proposed a framework on learning to learn. The framework was based on the assumption, proposed in the definition on learning to learn decided by the Education Council and the European Parliament, that this key competence can be defined as containing two dimensions; a cognitive and an affective (or belief) part. Under each dimension a number of subscales, based on existing subscales in the tests which have been developed in the research project mentioned above, were developed. A working group containing the authors of this paper was asked by the Expert Group to develop a test on learning to learn. This group has developed a draft instrument. The instrument has been constructed to correspond to the earlier developed framework. This paper describes how the work to construct this instrument has proceeded.
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