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Sökning: WFRF:(Galletti M.)

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  • Appeltans, W., et al. (författare)
  • The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Current Biology. - 0960-9822. ; 22:23, s. 2189-2202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. Results: There are similar to 226,000 eukaryotic marine species described. More species were described in the past decade (similar to 20,000) than in any previous one. The number of authors describing new species has been increasing at a faster rate than the number of new species described in the past six decades. We report that there are similar to 170,000 synonyms, that 58,000-72,000 species are collected but not yet described, and that 482,000-741,000 more species have yet to be sampled. Molecular methods may add tens of thousands of cryptic species. Thus, there may be 0.7-1.0 million marine species. Past rates of description of new species indicate there may be 0.5 +/- 0.2 million marine species. On average 37% (median 31%) of species in over 100 recent field studies around the world might be new to science. Conclusions: Currently, between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely. More species than ever before are being described annually by an increasing number of authors. If the current trend continues, most species will be discovered this century.
  • Altavilla, A., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of the new european paediatric regulatory framework on ethics committees: overview and perspectives
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 1651-2227. ; 101:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To evaluate the impact of the new European paediatric regulatory framework on the activities of Ethics Committees operating in Europe and to assess their involvement and interest in paediatric research. Methods: Task-force in Europe for Drug Development for the Young Network of Excellence and Relating Expectations and Needs to the Participation and Empowerment of Children in Clinical Trials project set up an inventory of Ethics Committees existing in Europe and conducted a survey on their approach to paediatric trials. Results: Ethics Committees operating in 22 European Countries participated in this survey. Results showed a high lack of knowledge, understanding and awareness of the current European paediatric regulatory framework and a lack of involvement of Ethics Committees in paediatric research, especially in terms of training and education, demonstrated also by the decreasing number of Ethics Committees answering exhaustively to the whole questionnaire. The majority of participating Ethics Committees expressed interest in future initiatives related to paediatric research. Conclusions: Despite a limited knowledge and understanding of the current paediatric regulatory framework, a significant number of Ethics Committees operating in Europe show interest in initiatives related to paediatric research. Networking may be an essential tool to be used to enhance Ethics Committees role in supporting paediatric research. Any initiative should be undertaken at European level in collaboration with European Union Institutions.
  • Curini-Galletti, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of Diversity in Soft-Bodied Meiofauna : Dispersal Ability and Body Size Matter
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 7:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Biogeographical and macroecological principles are derived from patterns of distribution in large organisms, whereas microscopic ones have often been considered uninteresting, because of their supposed wide distribution. Here, after reporting the results of an intensive faunistic survey of marine microscopic animals (meiofauna) in Northern Sardinia, we test for the effect of body size, dispersal ability, and habitat features on the patterns of distribution of several groups.Methodology/Principal Findings: As a dataset we use the results of a workshop held at La Maddalena (Sardinia, Italy) in September 2010, aimed at studying selected taxa of soft-bodied meiofauna (Acoela, Annelida, Gastrotricha, Nemertodermatida, Platyhelminthes and Rotifera), in conjunction with data on the same taxa obtained during a previous workshop hosted at Tja ̈rno ̈ (Western Sweden) in September 2007. Using linear mixed effects models and model averaging while accounting for sampling bias and potential pseudoreplication, we found evidence that: (1) meiofaunal groups with more restricted distribution are the ones with low dispersal potential; (2) meiofaunal groups with higher probability of finding new species for science are the ones with low dispersal potential; (3) the proportion of the global species pool of each meiofaunal group present in each area at the regional scale is negatively related to body size, and positively related to their occurrence in the endobenthic habitat.Conclusion/Significance: Our macroecological analysis of meiofauna, in the framework of the ubiquity hypothesis for microscopic organisms, indicates that not only body size but mostly dispersal ability and also occurrence in the endobenthic habitat are important correlates of diversity for these understudied animals, with different importance at different spatial scales. Furthermore, since the Western Mediterranean is one of the best-studied areas in the world, the large number of undescribed species (37%) highlights that the census of marine meiofauna is still very far from being complete. 
  • Galletti, L., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of topological edge states on the properties of Al/Bi2Se3/Al hybrid Josephson devices
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121. ; 89:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In superconductor-topological insulator-superconductor hybrid junctions, the barrier edge states are expected to be protected against backscattering, to generate unconventional proximity effects, and, possibly, to signal the presence of Majorana fermions. The standards of proximity modes for these types of structures have to be settled for a neat identification of possible new entities. Through a systematic and complete set of measurements of the Josephson properties we find evidence of ballistic transport in coplanar Al-Bi2Se3-Al junctions that we attribute to a coherent transport through the topological edge state. The shunting effect of the bulk only influences the normal transport. This behavior, which can be considered to some extent universal, is fairly independent of the specific features of superconducting electrodes. A comparative study of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and scanning tunneling spectroscopy gave an experimental signature compatible with a two-dimensional electron transport channel with a Dirac dispersion relation. A reduction of the size of the Bi2Se3 flakes to the nanoscale is an unavoidable step to drive Josephson junctions in the proper regime to detect possible distinctive features of Majorana fermions.
  • Ghaemi, Hirad, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • CLEAN technique in strip-map SAR for high-quality imaging
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: 2009 IEEE Aerospace Conference; Big Sky, MT; United States; 7 March 2009 through 14 March 2009.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The maximum obtainable resolution of a strip-map synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system can be retained by simply avoiding weighting, or tapering, data samples in the along-track compression process. However, this will lead to hazardous artifacts caused by strong sidelobes of the corresponding adjacent scatterers whose interference might severely weaken the desired targets or even introduce false targets. On the other hand, some residual artifacts, even after tapering process, may still deteriorate the quality (contrast) of the SAR image. These issues can be remedied by applying the so-called CLEAN technique, which can mitigate these ill-effects in strip-map SAR imagery while maintaining the maximum resolution. This, indeed, is carried out as a post processing step, i.e., after the azimuth compression is accomplished, in the SAR system. The objective of this paper is to extend the CLEAN technique to strip-map SAR system to produce high-quality images with a very good along-track resolution. The algorithm is then applied to data from a ground-based circular SAR (CSAR) system to verify its implementation as well as this new application of the CLEAN technique.
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