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Sökning: WFRF:(Gill Michael) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Elsik, Christine G., et al. (författare)
  • The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle : A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 324:5926, s. 522-528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.</p>
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2.
  • Sodergren, Erica, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 314:5801, s. 941-952
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome. The genome encodes about 23,300 genes, including many previously thought to be vertebrate innovations or known only outside the deuterostomes. This echinoderm genome provides an evolutionary outgroup for the chordates and yields insights into the evolution of deuterostomes.</p>
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3.
  • Stone, Jennifer L., et al. (författare)
  • Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications increase risk of schizophrenia
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 455:7210, s. 237-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder marked by hallucinations, delusions, cognitive deficits and apathy, with a heritability estimated at 73 - 90% ( ref. 1). Inheritance patterns are complex, and the number and type of genetic variants involved are not understood. Copy number variants ( CNVs) have been identified in individual patients with schizophrenia(2-7) and also in neurodevelopmental disorders(8-11), but large- scale genome- wide surveys have not been performed. Here we report a genome- wide survey of rare CNVs in 3,391 patients with schizophrenia and 3,181 ancestrally matched controls, using high- density microarrays. For CNVs that were observed in less than 1% of the sample and were more than 100 kilobases in length, the total burden is increased 1.15- fold in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with controls. This effect was more pronounced for rarer, single- occurrence CNVs and for those that involved genes as opposed to those that did not. As expected, deletions were found within the region critical for velo- cardio- facial syndrome, which includes psychotic symptoms in 30% of patients(12). Associations with schizophrenia were also found for large deletions on chromosome 15q13.3 and 1q21.1. These associations have not previously been reported, and they remained significant after genome- wide correction. Our results provide strong support for a model of schizophrenia pathogenesis that includes the effects of multiple rare structural variants, both genome- wide and at specific loci.</p>
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4.
  • Thorndyke, Michael C., 1946-, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Science. - 1095-9203. ; 314:5801, s. 941-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome. The genome encodes about 23,300 genes, including many previously thought to be vertebrate innovations or known only outside the deuterostomes. This echinoderm genome provides an evolutionary outgroup for the chordates and yields insights into the evolution of deuterostomes.
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5.
  • Pfreundschuh, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • CHOP-like chemotherapy plus rituximab versus CHOP-like chemotherapy alone in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma : a randomised controlled trial by the Mab Thera International Trial (MlnT) Group
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 7:5, s. 379-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background</p> <p>The role of rituximab in combination with different CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-like chemotherapy regimens in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma remains to be defined. We aimed to compare CHOP-like chemotherapy and rituximab with CHOP-like chemotherapy alone in these patients.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>824 patients who were from 18 countries; aged 18–60 years; and who had no risk factors or one risk factor according to age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (IPI), stage II–IV disease, or stage I disease with bulk were enrolled. These patients were randomly assigned to six cycles of CHOP-like chemotherapy and rituximab (n=413) or to six cycles of CHOP-like chemotherapy alone (n=411). Bulky and extranodal sites received additional radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was event-free survival; secondary endpoints were response, progression under therapy, progression-free survival, overall survival, and frequency of toxic effects. Analyses were done by intention to treat and per protocol. This trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT 00064116.</p> <p>Findings</p> <p>After a median follow-up of 34 months (range 0·03–61), patients assigned chemotherapy and rituximab had increased 3-year event-free survival compared with those assigned chemotherapy alone (79% [95% CI 75–83] <em>vs</em> 59% [54–64]; difference between groups 20% [13–27], log-rank p&lt;0·0001), and had increased 3-year overall survival (93% [90–95] <em>vs</em> 84% [80–88]; difference between groups 9% [3–13], log-rank p=0·0001). Event-free survival was affected by treatment group, presence of bulky disease, and age-adjusted IPI: after chemotherapy and rituximab, a favourable subgroup (ie, IPI=0, no bulk) could be defined from a less-favourable subgroup (ie, IPI=1 or bulk, or both). Groups did not differ in the frequency of adverse events.</p> <p>Interpretation</p> <p>Rituximab added to six cycles of CHOP is an effective treatment for young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. The definition of two prognostic subgroups allows for a more refined therapeutic approach for these patients.</p> Background <p>The role of rituximab in combination with different CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-like chemotherapy regimens in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma remains to be defined. We aimed to compare CHOP-like chemotherapy and rituximab with CHOP-like chemotherapy alone in these patients.</p> Methods <p>824 patients who were from 18 countries; aged 18–60 years; and who had no risk factors or one risk factor according to age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (IPI), stage II–IV disease, or stage I disease with bulk were enrolled. These patients were randomly assigned to six cycles of CHOP-like chemotherapy and rituximab (n=413) or to six cycles of CHOP-like chemotherapy alone (n=411). Bulky and extranodal sites received additional radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was event-free survival; secondary endpoints were response, progression under therapy, progression-free survival, overall survival, and frequency of toxic effects. Analyses were done by intention to treat and per protocol. This trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT 00064116.</p> Findings <p>After a median follow-up of 34 months (range 0·03–61), patients assigned chemotherapy and rituximab had increased 3-year event-free survival compared with those assigned chemotherapy alone (79% [95% CI 75–83] <em>vs</em> 59% [54–64]; difference between groups 20% [13–27], log-rank p&lt;0·0001), and had increased 3-year overall survival (93% [90–95] <em>vs</em> 84% [80–88]; difference between groups 9% [3–13], log-rank p=0·0001). Event-free survival was affected by treatment group, presence of bulky disease, and age-adjusted IPI: after chemotherapy and rituximab, a favourable subgroup (ie, IPI=0, no bulk) could be defined from a less-favourable subgroup (ie, IPI=1 or bulk, or both). Groups did not differ in the frequency of adverse events.</p> Interpretation <p>Rituximab added to six cycles of CHOP is an effective treatment for young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. The definition of two prognostic subgroups allows for a more refined therapeutic approach for these patients.</p>
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6.
  • Purcell, Shaun M., et al. (författare)
  • Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 460:7256, s. 748-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with a lifetime risk of about 1%, characterized by hallucinations, delusions and cognitive deficits, with heritability estimated at up to 80%(1,2). We performed a genome-wide association study of 3,322 European individuals with schizophrenia and 3,587 controls. Here we show, using two analytic approaches, the extent to which common genetic variation underlies the risk of schizophrenia. First, we implicate the major histocompatibility complex. Second, we provide molecular genetic evidence for a substantial polygenic component to the risk of schizophrenia involving thousands of common alleles of very small effect. We show that this component also contributes to the risk of bipolar disorder, but not to several non-psychiatric diseases.</p>
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7.
  • Sandqvist, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Datorspelsundret – bara ett luftslott
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Aftonbladet. - Stockholm : Aftonbladet Hierta AB. - 1103-9000. ; :2009-10-03
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
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8.
  • Sandqvist, Ulf, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Undret som inte fanns
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Super Play. - Stockholm : Medström. - 1401-8519. ; :oktober, s. 90-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
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9.
  • Secin, Fernando P, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-institutional Study of Symptomatic Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic or Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 53:1, s. 134-145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The true incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is unknown. Our aim was to determine the incidence of symptomatic DVT and PE and the risk factors for these complications. METHODS: Fourteen surgeons from 13 referral institutions from both Europe and the United States provided retrospective data for all 5951 patients treated with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), with or without robotic assistance, since the start of their institution's experience. Symptomatic DVT and PE within 90 d of surgery were regarded as venous thromboembolism (VTE). DVT was diagnosed mostly by Doppler ultrasound or contrast venography and PE by lung ventilation/perfusion scan or chest computed tomography or both. Statistical analysis included evaluation of incidence of symptomatic DVT and PE and risk factors as determined by exact methods and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 5951 patients in the study, 31 developed symptomatic VTE (0.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4%, 0.7%). Among patients with an event, 22 (71%) had DVT only, 4 had PE without identified DVT, and 5 had both. Two patients died of PE. Prior DVT (odds ratio [OR]=13.5; 95%CI, 1.4, 61.3), current tobacco smoking (OR=2.8; 95%CI, 1.0, 7.3), larger prostate volume (OR=1.18; 95%CI, 1.09, 1.28), patient re-exploration (OR=20.6; 95%CI, 6.6, 54.0), longer operative time (OR=1.05; 95%CI, 1.02, 1.09), and longer hospital stay (OR=1.05; 95%CI, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with VTE in univariate analysis. Neoadjuvant therapy, body mass index, surgical experience, surgical approach, pathologic stage, perioperative transfusion, and heparin administration were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of symptomatic VTE after LRP is low. These data do not support the administration of prophylactic heparin to all patients undergoing LRP, especially those without risk factors for VTE.
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