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Sökning: WFRF:(Glimelius Bengt) > (2005-2009)

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31.
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32.
  • Chang, Ellen T., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and risk of malignant lymphoma in Scandinavian men and women
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:3, s. 210-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and prevalence of obesity are increasing globally. A suggested positive association between obesity and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma has prompted us to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk of malignant lymphoma subtypes in a population-based case-control study. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 3055 case patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 618 case patients with Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed between October 1, 1999, and August 30, 2002, and 3187 population-based control subjects. The interviews assessed current height, normal adult weight, and other possible risk factors. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of lymphoma were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: BMI was not associated with risk of overall non-Hodgkin lymphoma or of Hodgkin lymphoma (for example, comparing the highly obese group [BMI > or =35.0 kg/m2] with the normal-weight group [BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2], OR for risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.6 to 1.3; P(trend) across all categories of BMI = .27). BMI was also not associated with risk of any non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype evaluated, although there was some evidence of a positive association with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example, comparing the highly obese group with the normal-weight group, OR for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.4; P(trend) =.05). CONCLUSIONS: Excess weight does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of malignant lymphoma in general, or with a risk of most major lymphoma subtypes. Hence, the growing incidence of obesity is unlikely to be an important contributor to the increasing incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma worldwide.
33.
  • Chang, Ellen T., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary factors and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma in men and women
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 14:2, s. 512-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has increased worldwide in recent decades. Diet could influence NHL risk by modulating the immune system, although evidence is limited. We did a population-based case-control study to determine whether differences in diet were associated with NHL risk. METHODS: A total of 597 NHL cases and 467 population controls in Sweden completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire evaluating their dietary habits 2 years before the interview. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between food intake and risk of NHL. RESULTS: High consumption of dairy products and fried red meat was associated with increased risk of NHL. The OR of NHL for individuals in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of dairy intake was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1-2.2; P(trend) = 0.003). The OR for the highest versus lowest quartile of fried red meat intake was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.0-2.1; P(trend) = 0.02). In contrast, high consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with reduced risk of NHL, particularly follicular lymphoma, among women but not men. Compared with the lowest quartile of vegetable intake, the OR of follicular lymphoma among women in the highest quartile of vegetable intake was 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7; P(trend) = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The positive associations of NHL risk with dairy products and fried red meat and the inverse association with fruits and vegetables suggest that diet affects NHL risk and could explain the increase of some histopathogic subtypes.
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34.
  • Chang, Ellen T., et al. (författare)
  • Family history of hematopoietic malignancy and risk of lymphoma
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:19, s. 1466-1474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: A family history of hematopoietic malignancy is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), although the magnitude of the relative risk is unclear. We estimated the association between familial hematopoietic cancer and risk of lymphoma using validated, registry-based family data, and we also investigated whether associations between some environmental exposures and risk of lymphoma vary between individuals with and without such a family history. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study of malignant lymphoma, 1506 case patients and 1229 control subjects were linked to the Swedish Multi-Generation Register and then to the Swedish Cancer Register to ascertain history of cancer in first-degree relatives of patients with malignant lymphoma. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with the risk of lymphoma. RESULTS: A history of hematopoietic malignancy in any first-degree relative was associated with an increased risk of all NHL (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.5), common B-cell NHL subtypes, and HL. Relative risks were generally stronger in association with sibling hematopoietic cancer (OR for all NHL = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.3 to 7.6) than with parental hematopoietic cancer (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.3). A family history of NHL or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was associated with an increased risk of several NHL subtypes and HL, whereas familial multiple myeloma was associated with a higher risk of follicular lymphoma. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity in NHL risk associations with environmental factors between individuals with and without familial hematopoietic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of NHL and HL among individuals with a family history of hematopoietic malignancy was approximately twofold for both lymphoma types. There was no evidence that etiologic associations varied between familial NHL and nonfamilial NHL.
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35.
  • Chang, Ellen T., et al. (författare)
  • Medication use and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 162:10, s. 965-974
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Conflicting results from previous epidemiologic studies shed little light on whether medication use is associated with risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). To investigate this question, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden from 1999 to 2002, including 3,055 incident NHL cases and 3,187 controls. Participants reported their past use of medications and history of particular medical conditions. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between medication use and risk of NHL; all statistical tests were two sided. Use of antibiotics more than 10 times during adulthood was positively associated with risk of NHL and most major NHL subtypes; when users were compared with nonusers, the odds ratio for NHL was 1.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.3); p(trend) for total antibiotic use <0.001. In addition, high cumulative use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was marginally associated with elevated NHL risk. Other medications evaluated were not associated with risk of NHL or its most common subtypes. Findings suggest that inflammation, infections, susceptibility to infections, and/or use of antibiotics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to treat these conditions may increase the risk of NHL. However, most of the medications examined were not associated with NHL risk.
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36.
  • Chang, Ellen T., et al. (författare)
  • Nutrient intake and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 164:12, s. 1222-1232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mechanisms through which diet may influence the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are unclear but can be better understood by examining associations between nutrient consumption and NHL risk. Between 2000 and 2002, 591 NHL cases and 460 population-based controls in Sweden completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations with nutrient intake; all statistical tests were two sided. Dietary intake of most macronutrients was not associated with risk of NHL or its common subtypes. Consumption of omega-3 or marine fatty acids was associated with decreased risk of NHL and chronic lymphocytic lymphoma, and dietary fiber was associated with lower risk of all subtypes examined. When the highest and the lowest quartiles of marine fat intake were compared, the odds ratio for NHL risk was 0.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.9), ptrend=0.03; for dietary fiber intake, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.5 (95% confidence interval: 0.3, 0.7), ptrend<0.001. Dietary consumption of beta-carotene or alpha-tocopherol was associated with lower NHL risk, whereas intake of calcium or retinol was associated with increased NHL risk. Nutrients that affect inflammation, vitamin D activity, oxidative DNA damage, or DNA methylation may be associated with risk of NHL.
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37.
  • Chang, Ellen T., et al. (författare)
  • Reliability of self-reported family history of cancer in a large case-control study of lymphoma
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 98:1, s. 61-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Case-control studies of familial cancer risk traditionally rely on self-reported family history of cancer, which may bias results due to differential recall between case patients and control subjects. To evaluate the reliability of self-reported data, we analyzed questionnaire and registry-based data on familial cancer from a population-based case-control study of malignant lymphoma. METHODS: All 1508 lymphoma case patients and 1229 control subjects completed a telephone interview assessing cancer in family members. Participants were linked to the Swedish Multi-Generation Register and Cancer Register to identify confirmed cancer diagnoses in first-degree relatives. The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported familial cancer were calculated among case patients and control subjects and were compared using logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Lymphoma case patients reported a family history of any cancer with statistically significantly higher sensitivity than control subjects (0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 0.87 and 0.80, 95% CI = 0.77 to 0.82, respectively) but with marginally lower specificity (0.89, 95% CI = 0.87 to 0.91 and 0.92, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.94, respectively). The sensitivity of self-reporting familial cancers by site ranged from less than 0.20 for rare malignancies to nearly 0.75 for more common types, whereas specificity was generally 0.98 or greater. For most sites, the reliability of self-report was similar in patients and control subjects. However, patients reported familial hematopoietic cancer with statistically significantly higher sensitivity (0.60, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.62) than control subjects (0.38, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.40). Odds ratios for the association between familial cancer and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were consistently higher when based on self-reported, compared with registry data-based, family history of any cancer or of hematopoietic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Reliability of self-reported family history of cancer varies between case patients and control subjects. Recall bias may thus produce biased results in case-control studies of familial cancer risk.
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38.
  • Ekström Smedby, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood social environment and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 67:22, s. 11074-11082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Better hygiene and sanitation and decreasing family size parallel the increasing incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in many populations around the world. However, whether sibship size, birth order, and crowding are related to adult NHL risk is not clear. We investigated how family structure and childhood social environment were related to the risk of NHL and NHL subtypes in a large Scandinavian population-based case control study with 6,242 participants aged 18 to 74 years. Detailed exposure information was obtained through telephone interviews. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using logistic regression, and all statistical tests were two-sided. Having four or more siblings was associated with a moderately increased risk of NHL, compared with having no siblings (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.62, P(trend) < 0.001). Having four or more older siblings was associated with a similar risk increase (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.59, P(trend) = 0.003) compared with being the oldest, whereas number of younger siblings was unrelated overall. The associations were independent of other environmental exposures and did not vary by country, age, or sex. High household crowding was also positively associated with risk of NHL. Results were slightly stronger for diffuse large B-cell and T-cell lymphomas than for other major NHL subtypes. Our findings add to the evidence that large sibship size, late birth order, and childhood crowding are associated with an elevated risk of NHL. Effect mechanisms may be related to early age at onset and high frequency of specific infections or total microbial exposure in childhood.
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39.
  • Fagerlind, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • Patient-physician communication during oncology consultations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Psycho-Oncology. - 1057-9249 .- 1099-1611. ; 17:10, s. 975-985
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the content of patient-physician communication in standard oncology care. METHODS: The sample consisted of 19 patients with gastrointestinal cancer. The consultations were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in seven main categories: Disease and treatment, Healthcare planning, Everyday living, Psychological well-being, Coping with disease, Expressions of concerns and feelings, and Other aspects of communication. The main focus during the consultations was on disease and treatment. Physicians tended to concentrate on response to treatment and types and severity of side effects and how to treat them. More patient-centered subjects of psychosocial character like coping and psychological well-being were discussed only briefly, if at all. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the information given by the existing communication analysis systems, and hence we suggest a development of the psychosocial content categories of those systems to make them more valid.
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40.
  • Fokstuen, Tone, et al. (författare)
  • Postoperative morbidity and mortality in relation to leukocyte counts and time to surgery after short-course preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - 0167-8140 .- 1879-0887. ; 93:2, s. 293-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer decreases local recurrence rates, but increases postoperative complications. Impaired postoperative leukocyte reaction after preoperative short-course radiotherapy has been reported. The aim was to assess postoperative morbidity and mortality in relation to leukocyte reaction and the time interval between radiotherapy and surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients included in the Stockholm I and II trials, randomising patients to surgery alone or to 5 x 5 Gy with immediate surgery, identified pre- and postoperative leukocyte values for 274 patients. RESULTS: In the surgery alone group (n=144), all but three patients (2%) reacted with leukocytosis (ratio post/preoperative >1.0) on day 1 and all but 9 (6%) on day 5. In the radiotherapy group (n=130), 40 (31%) became leukopenic (<4 x 10(9) cells/L) after radiotherapy, 29 (22%) reacted abnormally (leukopenia or ratio < or =1.0) on day 1 and 66 (51%) on day 5 (all p<0.001). Preoperative leukocyte counts did not influence postoperative morbidity, but a poor response on day 1 increased the risk of sepsis (p<0.05) and mortality (6/29 (21%) vs. 6/101 (6%), p<0.05). An interval of 10 days or more between the start of radiotherapy and surgery also had an impact on mortality; 6/17 (35%) vs. 6/113 (5%), p=0.001. In a logistic regression analysis, the time interval and age were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired postoperative leukocyte reaction is frequent after short-course radiotherapy and increases the risk of postoperative complications and death. A longer than recommended radiotherapy-surgery interval also appears to be detrimental for postoperative death, independently of leukocyte response.
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