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Sökning: WFRF:(Gonzalez Carlos A.) > Lunds universitet > Olsen Anja

  • Resultat 1-10 av 28
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1.
2.
  • van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. - Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 89:5, s. 1441-1452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A high consumption of fruit and vegetables is possibly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the findings to date are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the relation between self-reported usual consumption of fruit and vegetables and the incidence of CRC. Design: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 452,755 subjects (131,985 men and 320,770 women) completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 and were followed up for cancer incidence and mortality until 2006. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results: After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend < 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers. This modifying effect was found for fruit and vegetables combined and for vegetables alone (P for interaction, 0.01 for both). Conclusions: These findings suggest that a high consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of CRC, especially of colon cancer. This effect may depend on smoking status. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1441-52.
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3.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in metabolic genes related to tobacco smoke and the risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 15:12, s. 2427-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolizing enzymes, which often display genetic polymorphisms, are involved in the activation of compounds present in tobacco smoke that may be relevant to gastric carcinogenesis. We report the results of a study looking at the association between risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and polymorphisms in genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, and GSTT1. A nested case-control study was carried out within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, developed in 10 European countries. The study includes 243 newly diagnosed cases of histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma and 946 controls matched by center, age, sex, and date of blood collection. Genotypes were determined in nuclear DNA from WBCs. We found an increased risk of gastric cancer for homozygotes for C (histidine) variant in Y113H of EPHX1 (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.07) compared with subjects with TC/TT. There was also a significant increased risk for smokers carrying at least one variant allele A in Ex7+129C > A (m4) of CYP1A1 and never smokers with null GSTT1 and allele A in the locus -3859G > A of CYP1A2. Most of these genes are involved in the activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, suggesting a potential role of these compounds in gastric carcinogenesis.
4.
  • Buckland, Genevieve, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 91:2, s. 381-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean dietary pattern is believed to protect against cancer, although evidence from cohort studies that have examined particular cancer sites is limited.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the association between adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) and incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.DESIGN: The study included 485,044 subjects (144,577 men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries. At recruitment, dietary and lifestyle information was collected. An 18-unit rMED score, incorporating 9 key components of the Mediterranean diet, was used to estimate rMED adherence. The association between rMED and GC with respect to anatomic location (cardia and noncardia) and histologic types (diffuse and intestinal) was investigated. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement error.RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 8.9 y, 449 validated incident GC cases were identified and used in the analysis. After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized cancer risk factors, high compared with low rMED adherence was associated with a significant reduction in GC risk (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). A 1-unit increase in the rMED score was associated with a decreased risk of GC of 5% (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between different anatomic locations or histologic types. The calibrated results showed similar trends (overall hazard ratio for GC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99).CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to an rMED is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of incident GC.
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5.
  • Duell, Eric J., et al. (författare)
  • Menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use, and gastric cancer risk in a cohort of women from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 172:12, s. 1384-1393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The worldwide incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) is lower in women than in men. Furthermore, cancer patients treated with estrogens have been reported to have a lower subsequent risk of GC. The authors conducted a prospective analysis of menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use, and GC in 335,216 women from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition, a cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years from 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years (through 2004), 181 women for whom complete exposure data were available developed GC. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Women who had ovariectomy had a 79% increased risk of GC (based on 25 cases) compared with women who did not (hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.78). Total cumulative years of menstrual cycling was inversely associated with GC risk (fifth vs. first quintile: hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.98; P(trend) = 0.06). No other reproductive factors analyzed were associated with risk of GC. The results of this analysis provide some support for the hypothesis that endogenous ovarian sex hormones lower GC incidence in women.
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6.
  • Duell, Eric J, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin C transporter gene (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2) polymorphisms, plasma vitamin C levels, and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genes & Nutrition. - Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 1555-8932. ; 8:6, s. 549-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin C is known to protect mucosal tissues from oxidative stress and inhibit nitrosamine formation in the stomach. High consumption of fruits, particularly citrus, and higher circulating vitamin C concentrations may be inversely associated with gastric cancer (GC) risk. We investigated 20 polymorphisms in vitamin C transporter genes SCL23A1 and SCL23A2 and GC risk in 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. We also evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and baseline plasma vitamin C levels in a subset of participants. Four SNPs were predictors of plasma vitamin C levels (SLC23A1 rs11950646 and rs33972313; SLC23A2 rs6053005 and rs6133175) in multivariable linear regression models. One SNP (SLC23A2 rs6116569) was associated with GC risk, in particular non-cardia GC (OR = 1.63, 95 % CI = 1.11-2.39, based on 178 non-cardia cases), but this association was attenuated when plasma vitamin C was included in the logistic regression model. Haplotype analysis of SLC23A1 yielded no associations with GC. In SLC23A2, one haplotype was associated with both overall and non-cardia GC, another haplotype was associated with GC overall, and a third was associated with intestinal-type GC. Common variants in SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 may influence plasma vitamin C concentration independent of dietary intake, and variation in SLC23A2 may influence GC risk. Additional prospective studies in large populations and consortia are recommended. Investigation of variation in vitamin C transporter genes may shed light on the preventative properties of vitamin C in gastric carcinogenesis.
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7.
  • Eussen, Simone JPM, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma folate, related genetic variants, and colorectal cancer risk in EPIC
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 19:5, s. 1328-1340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Findings of the present study tend to weaken the evidence that folate plays an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. However, larger sample sizes are needed to adequately address potential gene-environment interactions.
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8.
  • González, Carlos A, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary factors and in situ and invasive cervical cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc. - 0020-7136. ; 129:2, s. 449-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some dietary factors could be involved as cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. There are no data about the effect of fruits and vegetables intake (F&V) on cervical cancer from cohort studies. We examined the association between the intake of F&V and selected nutrients and the incidence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive squamous cervical cancer (ISC) in a prospective study of 299,649 women, participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A calibration study was used to control measurement errors in the dietary questionnaire. After a mean of 9 years of follow-up, 253 ISC and 817 CIS cases were diagnosed. In the calibrated model, we observed a statistically significant inverse association of ISC with a daily increase in intake of 100 g of total fruits (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) and a statistically nonsignificant inverse association with a daily increase in intake of 100 g of total vegetables (HR 0.85: 95% CI 0.65-1.10). Statistically nonsignificant inverse associations were also observed for leafy vegetables, root vegetables, garlic and onions, citrus fruits, vitamin C, vitamin E and retinol for ISC. No association was found regarding beta-carotene, vitamin D and folic acid for ISC. None of the dietary factors examined was associated with CIS. Our study suggests a possible protective role of fruit intake and other dietary factors on ISC that need to be confirmed on a larger number of ISC cases.
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9.
  • Gonzalez, Carlos A, et al. (författare)
  • Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 98:5, s. 345-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Dietary factors are thought to have an important role in gastric and esophageal carcinogenesis, but evidence from cohort studies for such a role is lacking. We examined the risks of gastric cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with meat consumption within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: A total of 521,457 men and women aged 35-70 years in 10 European countries participated in the EPIC cohort. Dietary and lifestyle information was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine associations between meat intake and risks of cardia and gastric non-cardia cancers and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Data from a calibration substudy were used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. In a nested case-control study, we examined interactions between Helicobacter pylori infection status (i.e., plasma H. pylori antibodies) and meat intakes. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, 330 gastric adenocarcinoma and 65 esophageal adenocarcinomas were diagnosed. Gastric non-cardia cancer risk was statistically significantly associated with intakes of total meat (calibrated HR per 100-g/day increase = 3.52; 95% CI = 1.96 to 6.34), red meat (calibrated HR per 50-g/day increase = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.88), and processed meat (calibrated HR per 50-g/day increase = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.43 to 4.21). The association between the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer and total meat intake was especially large in H. pylori-infected subjects (odds ratio per 100-g/day increase = 5.32; 95% CI = 2.10 to 13.4). Intakes of total, red, or processed meat were not associated with the risk of gastric cardia cancer. A positive but non-statistically significant association was observed between esophageal adenocarcinoma cancer risk and total and processed meat intake in the calibrated model. In this study population, the absolute risk of development of gastric adenocarcinoma within 10 years for a study subject aged 60 years was 0.26% for the lowest quartile of total meat intake and 0.33% for the highest quartile of total meat intake. CONCLUSION: Total, red, and processed meat intakes were associated with an increased risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, especially in H. pylori antibody-positive subjects, but not with cardia gastric cancer.
10.
  • Mendez, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas: The EPIC-EURGAST study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley. - 0020-7136. ; 121:7, s. 1618-1623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date, different food sources of fiber have not been examined with respect to noncardia tumors or diverse histologic sub-types. This study prospectively examines associations between fiber from different food sources and incident gastric adenocarcinomas (GC) among more than 435,000 subjects from 10 countries participating in the European Prespective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Subjects aged 25-70 years completed dietary questionnaires in 1992-98, and were followed up for a median of 6.7 years. About 312 incident GCs were observed. The relative risk of GC was estimated based on cohort-wide sex-specific fiber intake quartiles using proportional hazards models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Intakes of cereal fiber, but not total, fruit or vegetable fiber, were associated with reduced GC risk adjusted HR for the highest vs. lowest quartile of cereal fiber 0.69, 0.48-0.99. There was a strong inverse association for diffuse HR 0.43, 0.22-0.86, but not intestinal type HR 0.98, 0.54-1.80 tumors. Associations for cardia vs. noncardia tumors were similar to those for overall GC, although cardia associations did not reach significance. Cereal fiber consumption may help to reduce risk of GC, particularly diffuse type tumors. Further study on different food sources of fiber in relation to GC risk is warranted to confirm these relationships.
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