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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Grönberg Henrik) srt2:(2015-2019)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Grönberg Henrik) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Ola, Spjuth, et al. (författare)
  • E-Science technologies in a workflow for personalized medicine using cancer screening as a case study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMIA Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. - Oxford University Press. - 1067-5027. ; 24:5, s. 950-957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We provide an e-Science perspective on the workflow from risk factor discovery and classification of disease to evaluation of personalized intervention programs. As case studies, we use personalized prostate and breast cancer screenings.Materials and Methods: We describe an e-Science initiative in Sweden, e-Science for Cancer Prevention and Control (eCPC), which supports biomarker discovery and offers decision support for personalized intervention strategies. The generic eCPC contribution is a workflow with 4 nodes applied iteratively, and the concept of e-Science signifies systematic use of tools from the mathematical, statistical, data, and computer sciences.Results: The eCPC workflow is illustrated through 2 case studies. For prostate cancer, an in-house personalized screening tool, the Stockholm-3 model (S3M), is presented as an alternative to prostate-specific antigen testing alone. S3M is evaluated in a trial setting and plans for rollout in the population are discussed. For breast cancer, new biomarkers based on breast density and molecular profiles are developed and the US multicenter Women Informed to Screen Depending on Measures (WISDOM) trial is referred to for evaluation. While current eCPC data management uses a traditional data warehouse model, we discuss eCPC-developed features of a coherent data integration platform.Discussion and Conclusion: E-Science tools are a key part of an evidence-based process for personalized medicine. This paper provides a structured workflow from data and models to evaluation of new personalized intervention strategies. The importance of multidisciplinary collaboration is emphasized. Importantly, the generic concepts of the suggested eCPC workflow are transferrable to other disease domains, although each disease will require tailored solutions.
2.
  • Jan, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • The roles of stress and social support in prostate cancer mortality
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of urology. - 2168-1805. ; 50:1, s. 47-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between perceived stress, social support, disease progression and mortality in a nationwide population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer. Materials and methods: The study surveyed 4105 Swedish men treated for clinically localized prostate cancer regarding stress, grief, sleep habits and social support. Associations between these factors and mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: Men with the highest levels of perceived stress had a statistically significantly increased rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared with men with low stress levels (hazard ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.63). Men with high stress levels also had a high frequency of grieving and sleep loss. They also had fewer people with whom to share their emotional problems and felt an inability to share most of their problems with partners, friends and family. Conclusions: This study contributes to the growing field of psychosocial quality of life research in men with prostate cancer. The findings show a significant association between prostate cancer-specific mortality and perceived stress in patients initially diagnosed with localized, non-metastatic prostate cancer. Significant associations between perceived stress and various psychosocial factors were also seen. The findings of this study could prove useful to target interventions to improve quality of life in men with prostate cancer.
3.
  • Adams, Charleen, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers of Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer in the ProtecT Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.
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4.
  • Bonn, Stephanie E., et al. (författare)
  • Physical Activity and Survival among Men Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 24:1, s. 57-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Few studies have investigated the association between post-diagnosis physical activity and mortality among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity after a prostate cancer diagnosis on both overall and prostate cancer-specific mortality in a large cohort. Methods: Data from 4,623 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer 1997-2002 and followed-up until 2012 were analyzed. HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between post-diagnosis recreational MET-h/d, time spent walking/bicycling, performing household work or exercising, and time to overall and prostate cancer-specific death. All models were adjusted for potential confounders. Results: During the follow-up, 561 deaths of any cause and 194 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Statistically significantly lower overall mortality rates were found among men engaged in 5 recreationalMET-h/d (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.52-0.77), walking/ bicycling 20 min/d (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57-0.86), performing householdwork > 1 h/d (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.86), or exercising > 1 h/wk (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90), compared with less active men within each activity type. For prostate cancer-specific mortality, statistically significantly lower mortality rates were seen among men walking/bicycling >= 20 min/d (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43-0.87) or exercising 1 h/wk (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.94). Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity were associated with reduced rates of overall and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Impact: Our study further strengthens previous results indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on survival among men with prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(1); 57-64.
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5.
  • Li, Jingmei, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants in a large, unselected breast cancer cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 144:5, s. 1195-1204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2-driven tumors may benefit from targeted therapy. It is not clear whether current BRCA screening guidelines are effective at identifying these patients. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of inherited BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in a large, clinically representative breast cancer cohort and to estimate the proportion of BRCA1/2 carriers not detected by selectively screening individuals with the highest probability of being carriers according to current clinical guidelines. The study included 5,122 unselected Swedish breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008. Target sequence enrichment (48.48 Fluidigm Access Arrays) and sequencing were performed (Illumina Hi-Seq 2,500 instrument, v4 chemistry). Differences in patient and tumor characteristics of BRCA1/2 carriers who were already identified as part of clinical BRCA1/2 testing routines and additional BRCA1/2 carriers found by sequencing the entire study population were compared using logistic regression models. Ninety-two of 5,099 patients with valid variant calls were identified as BRCA1/2 carriers by screening all study participants (1.8%). Only 416 study participants (8.2%) were screened as part of clinical practice, but this identified 35 out of 92 carriers (38.0%). Clinically identified carriers were younger, less likely postmenopausal and more likely to be associated with familiar ovarian cancer compared to the additional carriers identified by screening all patients. More BRCA2 (34/42, 81.0%) than BRCA1 carriers (23/50, 46%) were missed by clinical screening. In conclusion, BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in unselected breast cancer patients was 1.8%. Six in ten BRCA carriers were not detected by selective clinical screening of individuals.
6.
  • Locke, Adam E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 197-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10−8), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ~2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
7.
  • Mer, Arvind Singh, et al. (författare)
  • Study design requirements for RNA sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 2045-2322.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sequencing-based molecular characterization of tumors provides information required for individualized cancer treatment. There are well-defined molecular subtypes of breast cancer that provide improved prognostication compared to routine biomarkers. However, molecular subtyping is not yet implemented in routine breast cancer care. Clinical translation is dependent on subtype prediction models providing high sensitivity and specificity. In this study we evaluate sample size and RNA-sequencing read requirements for breast cancer subtyping to facilitate rational design of translational studies. We applied subsampling to ascertain the effect of training sample size and the number of RNA sequencing reads on classification accuracy of molecular subtype and routine biomarker prediction models (unsupervised and supervised). Subtype classification accuracy improved with increasing sample size up to N = 750 (accuracy = 0.93), although with a modest improvement beyond N = 350 (accuracy = 0.92). Prediction of routine biomarkers achieved accuracy of 0.94 (ER) and 0.92 (Her2) at N = 200. Subtype classification improved with RNA-sequencing library size up to 5 million reads. Development of molecular subtyping models for cancer diagnostics requires well-designed studies. Sample size and the number of RNA sequencing reads directly influence accuracy of molecular subtyping. Results in this study provide key information for rational design of translational studies aiming to bring sequencing-based diagnostics to the clinic.
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10.
  • Rantalainen, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics as an alternative to routine biomarkers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 2045-2322.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics have the potential to replace routine biomarkers and provide molecular characterization that enable personalized precision medicine. Here we investigate the concordance between sequencing-based and routine diagnostic biomarkers and to what extent tumor sequencing contributes clinically actionable information. We applied DNA- and RNA-sequencing to characterize tumors from 307 breast cancer patients with replication in up to 739 patients. We developed models to predict status of routine biomarkers (ER, HER2,Ki-67, histological grade) from sequencing data. Non-routine biomarkers, including mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and ERBB2(HER2), and additional clinically actionable somatic alterations were also investigated. Concordance with routine diagnostic biomarkers was high for ER status (AUC = 0.95;AUC(replication) = 0.97) and HER2 status (AUC = 0.97;AUC(replication) = 0.92). The transcriptomic grade model enabled classification of histological grade 1 and histological grade 3 tumors with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98;AUC(replication) = 0.94). Clinically actionable mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and ERBB2(HER2) were detected in 5.5% of patients, while 53% had genomic alterations matching ongoing or concluded breast cancer studies. Sequencing-based molecular profiling can be applied as an alternative to histopathology to determine ER and HER2 status, in addition to providing improved tumor grading and clinically actionable mutations and molecular subtypes. Our results suggest that sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics in a near future can replace routine biomarkers
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