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Sökning: WFRF:(Granfeldt Asger)

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1.
  • Barklin, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Alteration of Neuropeptides in the Lung Tissue Correlates Brain Death-Induced Neurogenic Edema
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION. - 1053-2498. ; 28:7, s. 725-732
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: increased intracranial pressure induces neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE), potentially explaining why only lungs from less than 20% of brain dead organ donors can be used for transplantation. This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of NPE, focusing on neuropeptides, which potently induce vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, and neurogenic inflammation. Methods: Brain death was induced in 10 pigs by increasing the intracranial pressure. Eight additional pigs served as controls. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P were analyzed in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and homogenized lung tissue 6 hours after brain death. Pulmonary oxygen exchange was estimated using partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao(2))/fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2), and pulmonary edema by wet/dry weight ratio. Results: Brain death induced a decrease in PaO2/FIO2 (P less than 0.001) and increased the wet/dry weight of both apical (p = 0.01) and basal lobes (p = 0.03). NPY and CGRP concentrations were higher in the BAL fluid of brain-dead animals compared with controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02) and were positively correlated with the wet/dry weight ratio. NPY content in lung tissue was lower in brain-dead animals compared with controls (p = 0.04) and was negatively correlated with the wet/dry weight ratio. There were no differences in substance P concentrations between the groups. Conclusion: NPY was released from the lung tissue of brain-dead pigs, and its concentration was related to the extent of pulmonary edema. NPY may be one of several crucial mediators of neurogenic pulmonary edema, raising the possibility of treatment with NPY-antagonists to increase the number of available lung donors.
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2.
  • Buhl, Mads, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Free Fatty Acids do not Contribute to the Acute Systemic Inflammatory Response. An Experimental Study in Porcine Endotoxaemia
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc. - 1742-7835. ; 105:5, s. 319-326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intensive insulin therapy, aiming for strict normoglycaemia, is associated with increased survival in critically ill patients. Insulin therapy concomitantly reduces plasma-free fatty acids. Recent studies indicate that free fatty acids mediate inflammation. In addition to plasma glucose and free fatty acid-lowering effects, insulin also has anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to study the pro-inflammatory effects of two free fatty acid concentrations during acute endotoxaemia and controlled comparable levels of plasma glucose and insulin. Twenty pigs were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Pigs were randomized to two different, constant Intralipid (R) infusion rates, throughout observation. All pigs were administered continuous intravenous infusion of endotoxin and subjected to controlled levels of p-glucose (4.5 mmol/l) and insulin by use of a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Changes in circulating tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, leucocytes, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids, triglycerides, albumin, blood gases, temperature, and, haemodynamic function were monitored. Immediately following killing, biopsies were taken from heart and kidney. Biopsies were analysed for protein content of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Sustained elevated and significantly different plasma levels of free fatty acids were demonstrated between groups (mean free fatty acid concentrations, 1.62 mM versus 0.58 mM, p < 0.0002). Endotoxaemia induced a steep increase in plasma TNF-alpha, IL-6 and leucocytes, however, without differences between the low- and high-free fatty acid groups. Cytokine content in heart and kidney tissue was not modified by free fatty acids. Compared with the response obtained at lower free fatty acid levels, high free fatty acid levels did not exacerbate the inflammatory response to acute endotoxaemia. Our results do not support the role of free fatty acids as a significant pro-inflammatory mediator.
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