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Sökning: WFRF:(Hallmans Göran 1947 )

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1.
  • Chen, Tianhui, et al. (författare)
  • IGF-I during primiparous pregnancy and maternal risk of breast cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - 0167-6806. ; 121:1, s. 169-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previously, we reported that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I during early pregnancy is positively associated with maternal risk of breast cancer. To further explore this association, we designed a new study limited to women who donated a blood sample during their first pregnancy ending with childbirth. A case-control study was nested within the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort in which repository since 1975, serum specimens remaining after early pregnancy screening for infectious diseases had been preserved. Study subjects were selected among women who donated a blood sample during the full-term pregnancy that led to the birth of their first child. Two hundred and forty-four women with invasive breast cancer were eligible. Two controls, matching the index case for age and date at blood donation were selected (n = 453). IGF-I was measured in serum samples on an Immulite 2000 analyzer. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A significant positive association of breast cancer with IGF-I was observed, with OR of 1.73 (95% CI: 1.14-2.63) for the top tertile, P < 0.009. Subgroup analyses did not indicate statistical heterogeneity of the association by ages at sampling and diagnosis or by lag time to cancer diagnosis, although somewhat stronger associations with risk were observed in women < or = age 25 at index pregnancy and for cases diagnosed within 15 years of blood donation. The results of the study add further evidence for an adverse effect of elevated IGF-I concentrations during early reproductive life on risk of breast cancer.
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2.
  • Chen, Tianhui, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal hormones during early pregnancy : a cross-sectional study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243. ; 21:5, s. 719-727
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Little is known about correlates of first-trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first-trimester maternal concentrations of four hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-II. METHODS: About 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975-2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies, were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. RESULTS: In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first-trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations.
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4.
  • Salzer, Jonatan, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Epstein-Barr virus antibodies and vitamin D in prospective multiple sclerosis biobank sampels
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Multiple Sclerosis Journal. - Sage Publications. - 1352-4585. ; 19:12, s. 1587-1591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Increased antibody reactivity against Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) has been associated with an increased risk for MS, and high levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been associated with a lower risk for MS. Interaction between these two factors has been proposed.Objectives: To examine the association between antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and five EBNA-1 domains, and the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS), and to examine if these antibodies and 25(OH)D status interact regarding MS risk in prospectively collected blood samples.Methods: Antibody reactivity (as specified above) and 25(OH)D levels were measured using ELISAs in n=192 MS cases and n=384 matched controls. The risk for MS was analysed using matched logistic regression.Results: The risk for MS increased across tertiles of antibody reactivity against EBNA-1, domain EBNA-1402–502, and domain EBNA-1385–420; p trend <0.001. The risk increase was most pronounced for EBNA-1385–420. In young individuals (below median age at sampling, <26.4 years) these associations were stronger, and 25(OH)D levels correlated inversely to antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and the EBNA-1 domains.Conclusions: We confirm that increased antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 is a risk factor for MS. Our findings in young individuals suggest that 25(OH)D status might influence the immune response towards Epstein-Barr virus, and thereby modulate MS risk.
5.
  • Salzer, Jonatan, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Multiple Sclerosis. - Sage Publications. - 1352-4585. ; 19:8, s. 1022-1027
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Smoking has been associated with an increased risk for multiple sclerosis, but no studies have measured levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in prospectively collected samples to assess exposure.Objective: To investigate the effects of laboratory defined tobacco use on the risk for multiple sclerosis using prospectively collected biobank blood samples.Methods: Levels of cotinine were measured in n=192 cases, and n=384 matched controls, using an immunoassay. The risk for multiple sclerosis was estimated using matched logistic regression.Results: Elevated cotinine levels (≥10 ng/ml) were associated with a significantly increased risk for multiple sclerosis, (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.0–2.1). This association was only present in young individuals (below median age at blood sampling, <26.4 years), (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.8).Conclusions: This study confirms that smoking is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. It has the advantage of using analyses of cotinine levels in samples that were collected several years before disease onset, thus excluding any risk for recall bias and minimising the risk for reversed causation. Our results also suggest that the smoking related immunological events that contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis occur early in life.
6.
  • Toniolo, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnancy and maternal risk of breast cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472. ; 70:17, s. 6779-6786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Full-term pregnancies are associated with long-term reductions in maternal risk of breast cancer, but the biological determinants of the protection are unknown. Experimental observations suggest that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a major hormone of pregnancy, could play a role in this association. A case-control study (242 cases and 450 controls) nested within the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort included women who had donated a blood sample during the first trimester of a first full-term pregnancy. Total hCG was determined on Immulite 2000 analyzer. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through conditional logistic regression. Maternal breast cancer risk decreased with increasing hCG (upper tertile OR, 0.67; CI, 0.46-0.99), especially for pregnancies before age 25 (upper tertile OR, 0.41; CI, 0.21-0.80). The association diverged according to age at diagnosis: risk was reduced after age 40 (upper tertile OR, 0.60; CI, 0.39-0.91) and seemed to increase before age 40 (upper tertile OR, 1.78; CI, 0.72-4.38). Risk was reduced among those diagnosed 10 years or longer after blood draw (upper tertile OR, 0.60; CI, 0.40-0.90), but not so among those diagnosed within 10 years (upper tertile OR, 4.33; CI, 0.86-21.7). These observations suggest that the association between pregnancy hCG and subsequent maternal risk of breast cancer is modified by age at diagnosis. Although the hormone seems to be a determinant of the reduced risk around or after age 50, it might not confer protection against, or it could even increase the risk of, cancers diagnosed in the years immediately following pregnancy.
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7.
  • Weinehall, Lars, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • High remaining risk in poorly treated hypertension : the "rule of halves" still exists
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0263-6352. ; 20:10, s. 2081-2088
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To estimate risk factors for stroke, to examine how different categories of patients with increased blood pressure are associated with risk for first-ever stroke event, and to estimate the proportions of these categories in a geographically defined population in northern Sweden. Setting : The study was nested within the Vasterbotten Intervention Program and the Northern Sweden MONICA cohorts. Design and participants : A population-based cross-sectional study and an incident case-control study were carried out. The incident case-control study comprised 129 cases of first-ever stroke diagnosed during 1985-96, with two randomly selected controls per case, chosen from the same geographically defined population. The cross-sectional study was based on 59 735 participants. Blood pressure status was categorized as: normotensive [systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mmHg]; treated and adequately controlled hypertension (SBP <140 mmHg and DBP <90 mmHg); treated but poorly controlled hypertension (SBP >=140 mmHg or DBP >=90 mmHg, or both); untreated hypertension (SBP >=140 mmHg or DBP >=90 mmHg, or both); newly detected increased blood pressure (SBP >=140 mmHg or DBP >=90 mmHg, or both). Main outcome measure: Risk for first-ever stroke. Results: In the cross-sectional study, 68% of individuals were normotensive, 3% had treated and adequately controlled hypertension, 6% had treated but poorly controlled hypertension, 7% had untreated hypertension, and 16% had newly detected increased blood pressure. In univariate analysis of the case-control study, history of diabetes, daily smoking, obesity, increased blood pressure and the hypertension categories 'treated but poorly controlled' and 'untreated' were associated with an increased stroke risk. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only diabetes and the hypertension categories treated but poorly controlled and untreated remained significant, with odds ratios 6.1 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 15.3) and 4.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 10.5), respectively. Only one of the 129 individuals who suffered stroke had treated and adequately controlled hypertension. Conclusions : The study illustrates the importance of adequate blood pressure control and, at the same time, that the vast majority in the population with increased blood pressure did not receive optimal care. Thus the 'rule of halves' still exists, and the high remaining risk in poorly treated hypertensive individuals in Sweden is remarkable and requires attention from the medical profession.
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8.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic syndrome and risks of colon and rectal cancer : the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). - 1940-6215. ; 4:11, s. 1873-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is purportedly related to risk of developing colorectal cancer; however, the association of MetS, as defined according to recent international criteria, and colorectal cancer has not been yet evaluated. In particular, it remains unclear to what extent the MetS components individually account for such an association. We addressed these issues in a nested case-control study that included 1,093 incident cases matched (1:1) to controls by using incidence density sampling. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the 2009 harmonized definition. Among individual components, abdominal obesity (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.16-1.96) was associated with colon cancer, whereas abnormal glucose metabolism was associated with both colon (RR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.57-2.68) and rectal cancer (RR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.45-2.96). MetS, as defined by each of the definitions, was similarly associated with colon cancer (e.g., RR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII), whereas MetS by NCEP/ATPIII, but not IDF or harmonized definition, was associated with rectal cancer (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02-2.06). Overall, these associations were stronger in women than in men. However, the association between MetS and colorectal cancer was accounted for by abdominal obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism such that MetS did not provide risk information beyond these components (likelihood ratio test P = 0.10 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII). These data suggest that simple assessment of abnormal glucose metabolism and/or abdominal obesity to identify individuals at colorectal cancer risk may have higher clinical utility than applying more complex MetS definitions. Cancer Prev Res; 4(11); 1873-83. ©2011 AACR.
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9.
  • Andersson, Jonas, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of heavy endurance physical exercise on inflammatory markers in non-athletes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150. ; 209:2, s. 601-605
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Physical activity has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease but the mechanisms are still somewhat unclear. One possible pathway may be through the anti-inflammatory effects attributed to regular physical activity. Our primary aim was to study the effects of endurance physical exercise on C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFalpha) during the acute and recovery phases. Secondarily, we studied the impact of diet on these inflammatory markers.METHODS: Twenty men, aged 18-55 years, participated in a 14 days cross-country skiing tour. They traveled 12-30km per day corresponding to about 10h of heavy physical activity. The participants were randomized to a diet with either 30 or 40% of energy derived from fat. Inflammatory variables were analysed at week 0, after 1 and 2 weeks and during the recovery phase at week 6 and 8.RESULTS: CRP and TNFalpha increased significantly during the two weeks of exercise (1.4-5.0mg/l, p=0.00 and 6.8-8.4pg/ml, p=0.00). CRP levels were significantly lower during recovery (median 0.7mg/l) compared to baseline (median 1.4mg/l) and did not correlate to metabolic variables. There were no significant changes in IL-6 levels during the study period. For dietary groups significant CRP changes were observed only in the high fat group during recovery.CONCLUSIONS: CRP and TNFalpha increased significantly but reacted differently during heavy physical activity while there seemed to be no significant changes in IL-6. No significant differences regarding inflammatory variables were found between the dietary groups.
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10.
  • Balter, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and risk of coronary heart disease in younger, middle-aged, and older adults
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322. ; 121:14, s. 1589-1597
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men <40 years of age and in women <50 years of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this pooled analysis of 8 prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192,067 women and 74,919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups; hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0 to 29.9 g/d) 39 to 50, 50 to 59, and >or=60 years of age were 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.86), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97) compared with abstainers. However, the analyses indicated a smaller incidence rate difference between abstainers and moderate consumers in younger adults (incidence rate difference, 45 per 100,000; 90% CI, 8 to 84) than in middle-aged (incidence rate difference, 64 per 100,000; 90% CI, 24 to 102) and older (incidence rate difference, 89 per 100,000; 90% CI, 44 to 140) adults. Similar results were observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is also associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease in younger adults; however, the absolute risk was small compared with middle-aged and older adults.
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