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  • Forsberg, Göte, et al. (författare)
  • Presence of bacteria and innate immunity of intestinal epithelium in childhood celiac disease
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0002-9270. ; 99:5, s. 894-904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Exposure to gliadin and related prolamins and appropriate HLA-DQ haplotype are necessary but not sufficient for contracting celiac disease (CD). Aberrant innate immune reactions could be contributing risk factors. Therefore, jejunal biopsies were screened for bacteria and the innate immune status of the epithelium investigated.METHODS: Children with untreated, treated, challenged CD, and controls were analyzed. Bacteria were identified by scanning electron microscopy. Glycocalyx composition and mucin and antimicrobial peptide production were studied by quantitative RT-PCR, antibody and lectin immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Rod-shaped bacteria were frequently associated with the mucosa of CD patients, with both active and inactive disease, but not with controls. The lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI) stained goblet cells in the mucosa of all CD patients but not of controls. The lectin peanut agglutinin (PNA) stained glycocalyx of controls but not of CD patients. mRNA levels of mucin-2 (MUC2), alpha-defensins HD-5 and HD-6, and lysozyme were significantly increased in active CD and returned to normal in treated CD. Their expression levels correlated to the interferon-gamma mRNA levels in intraepithelial lymphocytes. MUC2, HD-5, and lysozyme proteins were seen in absorptive epithelial cells. beta-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CEA cell adhesion molecule-1a (CEACAM1a), and MUC3 were not affected.CONCLUSIONS: Unique carbohydrate structures of the glycocalyx/mucous layer are likely discriminating features of CD patients. These glycosylation differences could facilitate bacterial adhesion. Ectopic production of MUC2, HD-5, and lysozyme in active CD is compatible with goblet and Paneth cell metaplasia induced by high interferon-gamma production by intraepithelial lymphocytes.
  • Hedberg, Maria E, et al. (författare)
  • Lachnoanaerobaculum a new genus in Lachnospiraceae; characterization of Lachnoanaerobaculum umeaense gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from human small intestine, Lachnoanaerobaculum orale gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from saliva and reclassification of Eubacterium saburreum (Prevot) Holdeman and Moore 1970 as Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum comb. nov.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. - 1466-5026. ; 62:11, s. 2685-2690
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two new obligately anaerobic Gram-positive, saccharolytic and non-proteolytic spore-forming bacilli (strain CD3:22 and N1) are described. Strain CD3:22 was isolated from a biopsy of the small intestine of a child with celiac disease and strain N1 from the saliva of a healthy young man. The cells of both strains were observed to be filamentous with lengths of approximately 5 to >20 µm, some of them curving and with swellings. The novel organisms produced H2S, NH3, butyric acid and acetic acid as major metabolic end products. Phylogenetic analyses, based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealed close relationships (98 % sequence similarity) between the two isolates, as well as the type strain of Eubacterium saburreum CCUG 28089T and four other Lachnospiraceae bacterium/E. saburreum-like organisms. This group of bacteria were clearly different from any of the 19 known genera in the family Lachnospiraceae. While Eubacterium spp. are reported to be non-spore-forming, reanalysis of E. saburreum CCUG 28089T confirmed that the bacterium, indeed, is able to form spores. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phenotypic and biochemical properties, CD3:22 (CCUG 58757T) and N1 (CCUG 60305T) represent new species of a new and distinct genus, named Lachnoanaerobaculum, in the family Lachnospiraceae [within the order Clostridiales, class Clostridia, phylum Firmicutes]. Strain CD3:22 is the type strain of the type species, Lachnoanaerobaculum umeaense gen. nov., sp. nov., of the proposed new genus. Strain N1 is the type strain of the species, Lachnoanaerobaculum orale gen. nov., sp. nov. Moreover, E. saburreum CCUG 28089T is reclassified as Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum comb. nov.
  • Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia, et al. (författare)
  • Human milk contains proteins that stimulate and suppress T lymphocyte proliferation.
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology. - 0009-9104. ; 79:3, s. 463-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The modulatory effect of human milk proteins from colostrum and late milk on the proliferative response of human T lymphocytes activated by mitogens (OKT3 and leucoagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris) and alloantigens was studied. High concentrations (10-100 micrograms/ml) of crude colostral milk proteins had an inhibitory effect on T cell growth while low concentrations (0.1-1 microgram/ml) enhanced T cells growth. In contrast, proteins from late milk did not inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation while the enhancing effect was retained. Colostrum was fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration on sepharose 6B. The inhibitory activity was recovered in a protein fraction containing lactoferrin as its major component. Lactoferrin was, however, not responsible for the observed inhibition. On the contrary, lactoferrin in most cases augmented the proliferative response induced by polyclonal activators. The inhibitory activity was found to bind concanavalin A-sepharose suggesting an association with glycoprotein. Inhibitory fractions contained glycoproteins of the following molecular sizes 26, 74/76 (doublet), 84, 145 and 160 kD under reducing conditions. The inhibitory effect appeared to be lymphocyte specific since the active fraction did not inhibit the growth of tissue culture cells (HeLa cells and human fibroblasts) or bacteria. Furthermore, the fraction was not toxic for lymphocytes. The inhibitory colostrum factor may prevent the newborn from overreacting immunologically against the environmental antigens encountered at birth.
  • Nordeman, Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • 11C and 18FRadiolabeling of Tetra- and Pentathiophenes as PET-ligands for Amyloid Protein Aggregates
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters. - American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1948-5875. ; 7:4, s. 368-373
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Three oligothiophenes were evaluated as PET tracers for the study of local and systemic amyloidosis ex vivo using tissue from patients with amyloid deposits and in vivo using healthy animals and PET-CT. The ex vivo binding studies revealed that all three labeled compounds bound specifically to human amyloid deposits. Specific binding was found in the heart, kidney, liver and spleen. To verify the specificity of the oligothiophenes towards amyloid deposits, tissue sections with amyloid pathology were stained using the fluorescence exhibited by the compounds and evaluated with multiphoton microscopy. Furthermore, in vivo rat and monkey PET-CT studies showed very low uptake in the brain, pancreas and heart of the healthy animals indicating low non-specific binding to healthy tissue. The biological evaluations indicated that this is a promising group of compounds for the visualization of systemic and localized amyloidosis.
  • Ou, Gangwei, et al. (författare)
  • Proximal small intestinal microbiota and identification of rod-shaped bacteria associated with childhood celiac disease
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0002-9270. ; 104:12, s. 3058-3067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Alterations in the composition of the microbiota in the intestine may promote development of celiac disease (CD). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we previously demonstrated that rod-shaped bacteria were present on the epithelium of proximal small intestine in children with CD but not in controls. In this study we characterize the microbiota of proximal small intestine in children with CD and controls and identify CD-associated rod-shaped bacteria. METHODS: Proximal small intestine biopsies from 45 children with CD and 18 clinical controls were studied. Bacteria were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing in DNA extracted from biopsies washed with buffer containing dithiothreitol to enrich bacteria adhering to the epithelial lining, by culture-based methods and by SEM and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The normal, mucosa-associated microbiota of proximal small intestine was limited. It was dominated by the genera Streptococcus and Neisseria, and also contained Veillonella, Gemella, Actinomyces, Rothia, and Haemophilus. The proximal small intestine microbiota in biopsies from CD patients collected during 2004-2007 differed only marginally from that of controls, and only one biopsy (4%) had rod-shaped bacteria by SEM (SEM+). In nine frozen SEM+ CD biopsies from the previous study, microbiotas were significantly enriched in Clostridium, Prevotella, and Actinomyces compared with SEM- biopsies. Bacteria of all three genera were isolated from children born during the Swedish CD epidemic. New Clostridium and Prevotella species and Actinomyces graevenitzii were tentatively identified. CONCLUSIONS: Rod-shaped bacteria, probably of the indicated species, constituted a significant fraction of the proximal small intestine microbiota in children born during the Swedish CD epidemic and may have been an important risk factor for CD contributing to the fourfold increase in disease incidence in children below 2 years of age during that time.
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