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Sökning: WFRF:(Hejzlar Josef) > (2020)

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1.
  • Kopacek, Jiri, et al. (författare)
  • Disruptions and re-establishment of the calcium-bicarbonate equilibrium in freshwaters
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : ELSEVIER. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 743
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During recent decades, increasing anthropogenic activities have affected natural ionic composition, including the strongest and most common relationship between ionic concentrations in the majority of natural global freshwaters, i.e., the Ca2+-ANC (acid neutralizing capacity) equilibrium. Using long-term monitoring data and MAGIC modelling, we evaluated effects of major present environmental stressors (synthetic fertilizers, liming, acidic deposition, forest disturbances, and climate change) on the Ca2+-ANC equilibrium. We evaluated the effects for three different types of terrestrial ecosystems, a circumneutral lowland agricultural catchment, two acid sensitive mountain forest catchments differing in forest health, and one acid sensitive alpine catchment. All catchments are in a region with the world-largest changes in fertilizing rates and acidic deposition in the 20th century, with increasing impacts until the late 1980s, and their subsequent abrupt, dramatic decreases. These strong changes resulted in a substantial disruption, followed by continuing re-establishment of the Ca2+-ANC relationship in all study waters. The shape of the disruption and the following re-establishment of its new value were dependent on the intensity, duration, and combination of stressors, as well as on catchment characteristics (bedrock composition, soil amount and composition, vegetation status, and hydrology). We conclude that a new equilibrium may deviate from its natural value due to the (1) legacy of fertilizing, acidic deposition and liming, affecting the soil Ca(2+ )pools, (2) forest disturbances and management practices, and (3) climate change. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Koschorreck, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • Hidden treasures : Human-made aquatic ecosystems harbour unexplored opportunities
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 49:2, s. 531-540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Artificial water bodies like ditches, fish ponds, weirs, reservoirs, fish ladders, and irrigation channels are usually constructed and managed to optimize their intended purposes. However, human-made aquatic systems also have unintended consequences on ecosystem services and biogeochemical cycles. Knowledge about their functioning and possible additional ecosystem services is poor, especially compared to natural ecosystems. A GIS analysis indicates that currently only similar to 10% of European surface waters are covered by the European Water Framework directive, and that a considerable fraction of the excluded systems are likely human-made aquatic systems. There is a clear mismatch between the high possible significance of human-made water bodies and their low representation in scientific research and policy. We propose a research agenda to build an inventory of human-made aquatic ecosystems, support and advance research to further our understanding of the role of these systems in local and global biogeochemical cycles as well as to identify other benefits for society. We stress the need for studies that aim to optimize management of human-made aquatic systems considering all their functions and to support programs designed to overcome barriers of the adoption of optimized management strategies.
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3.
  • Stockwell, Jason D., et al. (författare)
  • Storm impacts on phytoplankton community dynamics in lakes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : WILEY. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:5, s. 2756-2784
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many regions across the globe, extreme weather events such as storms have increased in frequency, intensity, and duration due to climate change. Ecological theory predicts that such extreme events should have large impacts on ecosystem structure and function. High winds and precipitation associated with storms can affect lakes via short-term runoff events from watersheds and physical mixing of the water column. In addition, lakes connected to rivers and streams will also experience flushing due to high flow rates. Although we have a well-developed understanding of how wind and precipitation events can alter lake physical processes and some aspects of biogeochemical cycling, our mechanistic understanding of the emergent responses of phytoplankton communities is poor. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis that identifies how storms interact with lake and watershed attributes and their antecedent conditions to generate changes in lake physical and chemical environments. Such changes can restructure phytoplankton communities and their dynamics, as well as result in altered ecological function (e.g., carbon, nutrient and energy cycling) in the short- and long-term. We summarize the current understanding of storm-induced phytoplankton dynamics, identify knowledge gaps with a systematic review of the literature, and suggest future research directions across a gradient of lake types and environmental conditions.
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  • Resultat 1-3 av 3

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