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Sökning: WFRF:(Hellqvist Karin)

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1.
  • Sunnerheim, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative structure-activity relationships of pine weevil antifeedants, a multivariate approach
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. - 0021-8561. ; 55:23, s. 9365-9372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antifeedant activity of mainly phenylpropanoic, cinnamic, and benzoic acids esters was tested on the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.). Of 105 compounds screened for activity, 9 phenylpropanoates, 3 cinnamates, and 4 benzoates were found to be highly active antifeedants. To understand the structure–activity relationships of these compounds, a multivariate analysis study was performed. A number of molecular and substituent descriptors were calculated and correlated to results from two-choice feeding tests with H. abietis. Three local models were developed that had good internal predictive ability. External test sets showed moderate predictivity. In general, low polarity, small size, and high lipophilicity were characteristics for compounds having good antifeedant activity.
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  • Danielsson, M, et al. (författare)
  • Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones : Is plant chemistry the explanation?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. - 0282-7581. ; 23:4, s. 299-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), is a major pest in conifer reforestation areas in the Palaearctic region. Size and chemistry of the seedlings may explain the damage rates in plantations. The performance of 10-week containerized seedlings (mini-seedlings) was compared with 1-year-old conventional seedlings of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), in a field experiment in central Sweden. After 2 years the weevil damage was lower for the mini-seedlings than for the conventional seedlings (3.5 vs 55%). After 3 years, the overall survival was 82 and 75%, respectively. Weevil damage was the main cause of mortality for conventional seedlings, whereas mini-seedlings mainly died from drought. Volatiles of the two seedling types were compared by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Unwounded mini-seedlings and conventional seedlings differed in their compositions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Miniseedlings mainly emitted limonene, known to be repellent to the pine weevil. When wounded, green leaf volatiles were released by mini-seedlings while the pine weevil attractant alpha-pinene was released by conventional seedlings. Volatiles may partly explain the mini-seedlings' resistance against weevil attack. Further studies are needed to clarify how long this miniseedling effect remains.
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  • Nordlander, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Regeneration of European boreal forests: Effectiveness of measures against seedling mortality caused by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management. - 0378-1127. ; 262:12, s. 2354-2363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Successful regeneration of conifer forests by planting is, in large parts of Europe, highly dependent on the effective suppression of damage caused by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis. We investigated the effectiveness of various combinations of control measures against pine weevil damage under boreal forest conditions in Sweden. In particular, we aimed to determine whether satisfactory regeneration could be obtained without the use of insecticides. The experimental study was established on ten new clear-cuts in each of three consecutive years. We studied the use of chemical and physical methods to protect seedlings directly, and investigated the influence of seedling type, age of clear-cut, and a number of soil factors as affected by preparation of the planting site, on the mortality and level of damage suffered by protected and unprotected seedlings. After two seasons, mortality due to pine weevil was 16% among unprotected seedlings, 6% for seedlings treated with the insecticides cypermethrin or imidacloprid, and less than 1% for those physically protected by a coating of Conniflex. However, the Conniflex, which consists of fine-grained sand embedded in a flexible acrylate matrix, was applied manually, and this may have enhanced its effectiveness compared to that achieved during large-scale, commercial application. Two types of containerized Norway spruce seedlings, which differed mainly in their stem diameter (average 2.6 mm and 3.5 mm), were used in the experiments. Among the unprotected seedlings, the narrower stemmed type was more frequently attacked (34% vs. 28%) and killed (19% vs. 12%) by pine weevil. Mortality caused by pine weevil among unprotected seedlings was higher on 1-year-old than on 2-year-old clear-cuts (20% vs. 12%). Soil preparation around unprotected seedlings had a substantial effect on the proportion attacked and killed by pine weevil as well as on the total mortality, with the highest level of feeding damage and mortality occurring on seedlings in undisturbed humus, and the lowest levels occurring on seedlings planted in pure mineral soil (26% vs. 7% for unprotected seedlings). This study demonstrates that acceptable levels of seedling survival can be achieved in regenerations of North European boreal forest without the use of insecticides. Mortality of unprotected seedlings can be reduced to acceptable levels if they are mostly planted in pure mineral soil. Damage can be further reduced by using seedlings with a somewhat larger stem diameter. Insecticides or a physical barrier of Conniflex alone appear to provide a sufficient level of protection. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Unelius, C. Rikard, et al. (författare)
  • Structure-activity relationships of benzoic acid derivatives as antifeedants for the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Ecology. - 0098-0331. ; 32:10, s. 2191-2203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aromatic organic compounds found in the feces of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been shown to deter feeding behavior in this species, which is a serious pest of planted conifer seedlings in Europe. We evaluated 55 benzoic acid derivatives and a few homologs as antifeedants for H. abietis. Structure-activity relationships were identified by bioassaying related compounds obtained by rational syntheses of functional group analogs and structural isomers. We identified five main criteria of efficiency as antifeedants among the benzoic acid derivatives. By predicting optimal structures for H. abietis antifeedants, we attempted to find a commercial antifeedant to protect conifer seedlings against damage by H. abietis in regenerating forests. New, highly effective antifeedants are methyl 2,4-dimethoxybenzoate, isopropyl 2,4-dimethoxybenzoate, methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate, methyl (3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)acetate, and methyl (2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)acetate. Of these, methyl 2,4-dimethoxybenzoate and isopropyl 2,4-dimethoxybenzoate have the highest antifeedant indices of all substances tested and are the best candidates for practical applications in order to protect planted seedlings in the field.
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