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1.
  • Chattopadhyay, Subhayan, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of family history of cancer on risk and mortality of second cancers in patients with prostate cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1365-7852. ; 22:1, s. 143-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Survival rates are increasing in patients with prostate cancer, and second primary cancers (SPCs) are becoming more common in these patients. However, the etiology and clinical consequences of SPCs are not well-known. We define the impact of family history on SPC and causes of mortality in these patients. Patients and methods: A nation-wide cohort study based on the Swedish Family-Cancer Database covering 4.4 million men and 80,449 prostate cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2015. Relative risks (RRs) and cumulative incidence for SPCs and for familial SPC were calculated for prostate cancer patients. Results: SPC was diagnosed in 6,396 men and more than a third of these patients had a first-degree family history of any cancer; the familial risk was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.27–1.40), compared to 1.10 (1.08–1.16), without a family history. Cumulative incidence by the age of 83 years reached 21% for prostate cancer alone, 28% in those with SPC, and 35% in patients with SPC and family history. Family history was associated with the risk of seven specific SPCs, including colorectal, lung, kidney, bladder and skin (both melanoma and squamous cell) cancers, and leukemia. Colorectal and lung cancers were common SPCs, and family history doubled the risk of these SPCs. In patients with SPC, half of all causes of death were due to SPC and only 12.77% were due to prostate cancer. Most deaths in SPC were caused by lung and colorectal cancers. Conclusions: SPCs were an important cause of death in patients with prostate cancer and family history was an important risk factor for SPCs. Prevention of SPC should be essential when prostate cancer survival rates are being improved and this could start by conducting a thorough assessment of family history at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis.
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2.
  • Went, Molly, et al. (författare)
  • Author Correction: Identification of multiple risk loci and regulatory mechanisms influencing susceptibility to multiple myeloma
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1, s. 213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of a member of the PRACTICAL Consortium, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, which was incorrectly given as Manuela Gago Dominguez. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. Furthermore, in the original HTML version of this Article, the order of authors within the author list was incorrect. The PRACTICAL consortium was incorrectly listed after Richard S. Houlston and should have been listed after Nora Pashayan. This error has been corrected in the HTML version of the Article; the PDF version was correct at the time of publication.
3.
  • Went, Molly, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptome-wide association study of multiple myeloma identifies candidate susceptibility genes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Genomics. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1479-7364. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundWhile genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple myeloma (MM) have identified variants at 23 regions influencing risk, the genes underlying these associations are largely unknown. To identify candidate causal genes at these regions and search for novel risk regions, we performed a multi-tissue transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS).ResultsGWAS data on 7319 MM cases and 234,385 controls was integrated with Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) data assayed in 48 tissues (sample sizes, N = 80–491), including lymphocyte cell lines and whole blood, to predict gene expression. We identified 108 genes at 13 independent regions associated with MM risk, all of which were in 1 Mb of known MM GWAS risk variants. Of these, 94 genes, located in eight regions, had not previously been considered as a candidate gene for that locus.ConclusionsOur findings highlight the value of leveraging expression data from multiple tissues to identify candidate genes responsible for GWAS associations which provide insight into MM tumorigenesis. Among the genes identified, a number have plausible roles in MM biology, notably APOBEC3C, APOBEC3H, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, or have been previously implicated in other malignancies. The genes identified in this TWAS can be explored for follow-up and validation to further understand their role in MM biology.
4.
  • Yu, Hongyao, et al. (författare)
  • Familial Associations of Colon and Rectal Cancers With Other Cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. - Springer. - 0012-3706. ; 62:2, s. 189-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that colon and rectal cancers differ in etiology and histology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the associations of colon and rectal cancers with any other (discordant) cancer were site specific. DESIGN: A novel approach was implemented in which cancer risks were analyzed in families with increasing numbers of family members diagnosed with defined cancers. The novel assumption was that, for a true familial association, the risk should increase by the number of affected family members. In separate analyses, familial risks were calculated after the exclusion of putative families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. SETTINGS: The study was conducted using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measure was relative risk. RESULTS: Relative risks of colorectal cancer and colon cancer were higher when family members were diagnosed with colon cancer than when family members were diagnosed with rectal cancer (incidence rate ratio for colorectal: 1.82 (95% CI, 1.74-1.90) vs 1.61 (95% CI, 1.51-1.71); incidence rate ratio for colon: 1.92 (95% CI, 1.83-2.02) vs 1.56 (95% CI, 1.45-1.69)). Relative risks for 10 discordant cancers were increased in colon or rectal cancer families, whereas none of the relative risks differed significantly between colon and rectal cancers. After deleting hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families, the relative risks of endometrial and ovarian cancers were no longer significant. LIMITATIONS: Genetic data are unavailable in the database. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that familial risks for colon cancer were higher than risks for rectal cancer in families of patients with colorectal cancer and colon cancer. The relationships of lung cancer and nervous system cancer with colorectal cancer were site specific. The associations of colon and rectal cancers with lung cancer, myeloma, and cancer of unknown primary appeared not to point out known syndromes and may suggest involvement of a novel predisposition. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A791.
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5.
  • Zhang, Luyao, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of Familial Clustering of Anogenital and Skin Cancers Between In Situ and Invasive Types
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Literature on familial risk of carcinomas in situ (CISs) is limited because many cancer registries do not collect information on CIS. In Sweden CISs are collected, and we used these data to analyze familial relative risks (RRs) for concordant (CIS-CIS) types of anogenital (cervical, other female and male genital and anal) and skin squamous cell CIS; additionally RRs were assessed between CIS types and between CIS and invasive forms. RRs were calculated for the offspring generations when family members were diagnosed CIS. Case numbers for CIS ranged from 330 in anal to 177,285 in cervical CIS. Significant concordant CIS-CIS RRs were 2.74 for female genital, 1.77 for cervical and 2.29 for SCC skin CISs. The CIS forms associated also with each other, except for cervical and skin CIS types. RRs for concordant CIS-invasive cancer associations were lower than CIS-CIS associations. Cervical CIS associated with non-Hodgkin CIS which may suggest immune dysfunction as a contributing factors. The results for anogenital CIS types suggest that life style related human papilloma virus infections contributed to the observed familial associations. Lower risks for CIS-invasive cancer than CIS-CIS suggest that CIS and invasive cancers share only partially risk factors that underlie familial clustering.
6.
  • Zhang, Luyao, et al. (författare)
  • Familial Clustering, Second Primary Cancers and Causes of Death in Penile, Vulvar and Vaginal Cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data on familial risks in penile and vulvar/vaginal cancers and in second primary cancers (SPCs) following these cancers are limited. We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database from years 1958 through 2015 to identify 3641 penile and 8856 vulvar/vaginal cancers and to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for these cancers according to site-specific cancer in family members; additionally risk for SPCs was calculated. The familial RR for concordant (same) penile cancer was 3.22 (1.34–7.74), and it was 2.72 (1.69–4.39) for vulvar/vaginal cancer; RRs were increased for vulvar/vaginal cancer in families of anal cancer patients. RR for second penile cancer after penile cancers was 11.68 (7.95–17.18), while that for concordant vulvar/vaginal cancer was 9.03 (7.31–11.15). SPCs were diagnosed in 16.8% of penile cancer patients and in them 45.9% of deaths were caused by SPC (other than penile cancer). In vulvar/vaginal cancer patients with SPC, 36.4% of deaths were due to SPC. The results showed that these genital cancers might run in families and as SPCs are associated with human papilloma virus and smoking related cancers. Risk for these genital and anal SPCs are high and a follow-up plan should be agreed at diagnosis of these cancers.
7.
  • Zhang, Luyao, et al. (författare)
  • Second cancers and causes of death in patients with testicular cancer in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 14:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While treatment for testicular cancer (TC) has become standardized after the 1980s with an associated significant improvement in patient survival, this has been accompanied by an increased risk of second primary cancers (SPCs). Patients were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry spanning the years from 1980 to 2015, including 8788 individuals with primary TC and their SPCs. Relative risks (RRs) for SPC were calculated using the generalized Poisson regression model. SPCs were diagnosed in 9.4% of patients with TC and half of them were late onset cancers not common in the population in their 40s. Overall RR of SPCs (excluding second TC) was 1.30 (95%CI: 1.20–1.40), including high risks for seven solid cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia. Second TC was the most common SPC and the RR of 17.19 (95%CI: 14.89–19.85) was the highest recorded. Cancers known to be fatal as first primary cancers were also fatal as SPC in TC patients. Survival at 30 years of follow-up was approximately 80% for TC patients without SPC but it decreased to 40% for patients with SPC. The unexpected finding that half of the identified SPCs were typical late onset cancers in the middle-aged population raises concerns that therapy may facilitate premature aging. The risks of SPC are clinically important for the long-term management of TC patients and the high-mortality calls for a future management strategy.
8.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Second primary cancer after female breast cancer : Familial risks and cause of death
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7634. ; 8:1, s. 400-407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: With continuous increases in survival rates following breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, the challenge of multiple primary cancers has become an issue. The data on familial risk of SPCs after BC diagnosis and the related mortality in BC patients are scarce. Methods: A total of 87 752 female BC patients were followed for SPC diagnoses and records of death. Relative risks (RRs) of SPC in BC patients who had first-degree relatives (parents or siblings) affected by the same cancer were compared to the patients without family history. Causes of death were compared between patients with and without SPC. Results: After a median follow-up of 5 years, 14 952 BC patients developed SPCs, among which 10 280 (68.8%) had first-degree relatives diagnosed with cancer. Familial risks were significant for 14 site-specific SPCs, and the highest risk was for second ovarian cancer (RR = 6.28, 95%CI: 4.50-8.75), compared to those without family history (1.49, 1.34-1.65). In patients with SPC, SPC was the main cause of death, including diverse cancers and BC in approximately equal proportions. Conclusions: Family history contributed to the excess number of patients with SPCs, and SPC was the leading cause of death in patients with SPC. Taking family history at diagnosis of BC may provide warning signs with regard to possible subsequent SPCs and may offer possibilities for counseling, intervention and management.
9.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Second primary cancers in patients with acute lymphoblastic, chronic lymphocytic and hairy cell leukaemia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0007-1048. ; 185:2, s. 232-239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Improvement of survival in lymphocytic leukaemia has been accompanied by the occurrence of second primary cancer (SPCs). Based on Swedish Family Cancer Database, we applied bi-directional analyses in which relative risks (RRs) were calculated for any SPCs in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and the risks of these leukaemias as SPCs. After CLL, RRs were significant for 20 SPCs, and high for skin squamous cell cancer (24·58 for in situ and 7·63 for invasive), Merkel cell carcinoma (14·36), Hodgkin lymphoma (7·16) and Kaposi sarcoma (6·76). Conversely, 15 CLL cancer pairs were reciprocally increased. The increased risks were reciprocal for ALL and four cancers. RR for ALL was 15·35 after myeloid neoplasia. HCL showed reciprocally increased RRs with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and melanoma. The concordance between RRs for bi-directional associations between CLL and different cancers, and HCL and different cancers was highly significant. For CLL (also for HCL), the bi-directional risks with skin cancers and other immune-related cancers suggest the probable involvement of immune dysfunction. For ALL, treatment may contribute to risks of multiple SPCs. Increased risk of ALL after haematological neoplasms may indicate bone marrow dysfunction. These findings may help guide treatment decisions and prognostic assessment.
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10.
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