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Sökning: WFRF:(Holmér Ingvar) > Lunds universitet > Nocker Wolfgang > Refereegranskat

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1.
  • Bröde, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. ; 16:2, s. 231-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considered. Garments with different outer materials and colours and additionally an aluminised reflective suit were combined with different number and types of dry and pre-wetted underwear layers. Under radiant stress, whole body heat loss decreased, i.e., heat gain occurred compared to the reference. This heat gain increased with radiation intensity, and decreased with air velocity and clothing insulation. Except for the reflective outer layer that showed only minimal heat gain over the whole range of radiation intensities, the influence of the outer garments’ material and colour was small with dry clothing. Wetting the underclothing for simulating sweat accumulation, however, caused differing effects with higher heat gain in less permeable garments.
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2.
  • Bröde, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Heat transfer through protective clothing under symmetric and asymmetric long wave thermal radiation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft. ; 62:4, s. 267-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This report considers results of an ED funded research on thermal properties ofprotective clothing and their use in the assessment of the thermal strain at work. In order to study the effects of the asymmetry oflong wave thermal radiation on the heat transfer through protective clothing, the heat loss under all-side and unilaterally applied radiation with the same incident radiant power of 279 W/m2 was measured with a thermal manikin and compared to a reference condition where mean radiant temperature was equal to air temperature. With exposure to radiation a lowered heat loss, i.e. heat gain for the whole covered body area was observed, which did not depend on radiant asymmetry for the dry as well as for the combined dry and evaporative heat loss, and which was attenuated when wearing a more insulating underwear. However, under one-sided radiation a more inhomogeneous spatial distribution occurred with higher heat gains and higher surface temperatures at the irradiated body parts. Practical Relevance The direction ofthermal radiation in the horizontal plane may be neglected when assessing the physiological heat strain in protective clothing by heat budget models. In contrast to this, it may be advisable to consider radiant asymmetries with respect to thermal comfort with low intensity radiation, and the most intense radiant source when assessing the risk of skin burns.
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3.
  • Bröde, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Non-evaporative effects of a wet mid layer on heat transfer through protective clothing
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology. - Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. - 1439-6327 .- 1439-6319. ; 104:2, s. 341-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to assess the non-evaporative components of the reduced thermal insulation of wet clothing, experiments were performed with a manikin and with human subjects in which two layers of underwear separated by an impermeable barrier were worn under an impermeable overgarment at 20 °C, 80% RH and 0.5 ms-1 air velocity. By comparing manikin measurements with dry and wetted mid underwear layer, the increase in heat loss caused by a wet layer kept away from the skin was determined, which turned out to be small (5-6 Wm-2), irrespective of the inner underwear layer being dry or wetted, and was only one third of the evaporative heat loss calculated from weight change, i.e. evaporative cooling efficiency was far below unity. In the experiments with 8 males, each subject participated in two sessions with the mid underwear layer either dry or wetted, where they stood still for the first 30 minutes and then performed treadmill work for 60 minutes. Reduced heat strain due to lower insulation with the wetted mid layer was observed with decreased microclimate and skin temperatures, lowered sweat loss and cardiac strain. Accordingly, total clothing insulation calculated over the walking period from heat balance equations was reduced by 0.02 m2 °C W-1 (16%), while for the standing period the same decrease in insulation, representing 9% reduction only showed up after allowing for the lower evaporative cooling efficiency in the calculations. As evaporation to the environment and inside the clothing was restricted, the observed small alterations may be attributed to the wet mid layer’s increased conductivity, which, however, appears to be of minor importance compared to the evaporative effects in the assessment of the thermal properties of wet clothing.
4.
  • Havenith, George, et al. (författare)
  • Apparent latent heat of evaporation from clothing: attenuation and “heat pipe” effects
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physiology. - The American Physiological Society. - 8750-7587. ; 104:1, s. 142-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigating claims that a clothed person’s mass loss does not always represent their evaporative heat loss (EVAP), a thermal manikin study was performed measuring heat balance components in more detail than human studies would permit. Using clothing with different levels of vapor permeability and measuring heat losses from skin controlled at 34°C in ambient temperatures of 10, 20, and 34°C with constant vapor pressure (1 kPa), additional heat losses from wet skin compared with dry skin were analyzed. EVAP based on mass loss (Emass) measurement and direct measurement of the extra heat loss by the manikin due to wet skin (Eapp) were compared. A clear discrepancy was observed. Emass overestimated Eapp in warm environments, and both under and overestimations were observed in cool environments, depending on the clothing vapor permeability. At 34°C, apparent latent heat ((lambda)app) of pure evaporative cooling was lower than the physical value ((lambda); 2,430 J/g) and reduced with increasing vapor resistance up to 45%. At lower temperatures, (lambda)app increases due to additional skin heat loss via evaporation of moisture that condenses inside the clothing, analogous to a heat pipe. For impermeable clothing, (lambda)app even exceeds (lambda) by four times that value at 10°C. These findings demonstrate that the traditional way of calculating evaporative heat loss of a clothed person can lead to substantial errors, especially for clothing with low permeability, which can be positive or negative, depending on the climate and clothing type. The model presented explains human subject data on EVAP that previously seemed contradictive.
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8.
  • Richards, Mark G M, et al. (författare)
  • Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics. - Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute. - 1080-3548. ; 14:1, s. 69-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT project. Thermal manikin results of dry and wet heat loss are presented from different laboratories for a range of 2-layer clothing with similar dry insulations but different water vapour permeabilities and absorptive properties. The results obtained from the different manikins are generally consistent with one another. For each climate, total wet heat loss is predominately dependent on the permeability of the outer layer. At 10 degrees C, the apparent evaporative heat loss is markedly higher than expected from evaporation alone (measured at 34 degrees C) which is attributed to condensation within the clothing and to increased conductivity of the wet clothing layers.
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