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Sökning: WFRF:(Holmér Ingvar) > Wang Faming > Engelska > Populärvet., debatt m.m.

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  • Wang, Faming, et al. (författare)
  • A Study on Evaporative Resistances of Two Skins Designed for Thermal Manikin Tore under Different Environmental Conditions
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Fiber Bioengineering and Informatics. - Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Society Limited. - 1940-8676. ; 1:4, s. 301-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • A cotton skin and a waterproof but permeable Gore-Tex skin were designed for the thermal manikin “Tore” to simulate different sweating styles (the wet cotton skin inside and Gore-Tex skin outside to simulate the sweating style of thermal manikin “Walter”, and Gore-Tex skin inside with wet cotton skin outside to simulate the sweating style of thermal manikins “Newton”). The evaporative resistances of two skin combinations with clothing ensembles were compared at different environmental conditions. In addition, the total evaporative resistance of clothing ensemble was calculated by both the heat loss method (option 1) and the mass loss method (option 2) according to ASTM F 2370. We found that the effect of different sweating mechanisms on the clothing evaporative resistance should be considered. The results showed that the total evaporative resistances calculated by option 2 were more accurate than values in option 1 under the isothermal condition. It was also found that differences of the total evaporative resistance between two skin combinations with clothing ensembles decreased with the increasing clothing ensemble layer. In a non-isothermal condition, the total evaporative resistance calculated by option 1 was more accurate than the value obtained in option 2, which was due to the lower ambient temperature and condensations between each adjacent layer.
  • Wang, Faming, et al. (författare)
  • Can the PHS model (ISO7933) predict reasonable thermophysiological responses while wearing protective clothing in hot environments?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physiological Measurement. - IOP Publishing. - 0967-3334. ; 32:2, s. 239-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • In this paper, the prediction accuracy of the PHS (predicted heat strain) model on human physiological responses while wearing protective clothing ensembles was examined. Six human subjects (aged 29 ± 3 years) underwent three experimental trials in three different protective garments (clothing thermal insulation Icl ranges from 0.63 to 2.01 clo) in two hot environments (40 °C, relative humidities: 30% and 45%). The observed and predicted mean skin temperature, core body temperature and sweat rate were presented and statistically compared. A significant difference was found in the metabolic rate between FIRE (firefighting clothing) and HV (high visibility clothing) or MIL (military clothing) (p < 0.001). Also, the development of heart rate demonstrated the significant effects of the exposure time and clothing ensembles. In addition, the predicted evaporation rate during HV, MIL and FIRE was much lower than the experimental values. Hence, the current PHS model is not applicable for protective clothing with intrinsic thermal insulations above 1.0 clo. The results showed that the PHS model generated unreliable predictions on body core temperature when human subjects wore thick protective clothing such as firefighting clothing (Icl > 1.0 clo). The predicted mean skin temperatures in three clothing ensembles HV, MIL and FIRE were also outside the expected limits. Thus, there is a need for further extension for the clothing insulation validation range of the PHS model. It is recommended that the PHS model should be amended and validated by individual algorithms, physical or physiological parameters, and further subject studies.
  • Wang, Faming, et al. (författare)
  • Development and validity of a universal empirical equation to predict skin surface temperature on thermal manikins
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thermal Biology. - Elsevier. - 0306-4565. ; 35:4, s. 197-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Clothing evaporative resistance is an important input in thermal comfort models. Thermal manikin tests give the most accurate and reliable evaporative resistance values for clothing. The calculation methods of clothing evaporative resistance require the sweating skin surface temperature (i.e., options 1 and 2). However, prevailing calculation methods of clothing evaporative resistance (i.e., options 3 and 4) are based on the controlled nude manikin surface temperature due to the sensory measurement difficulty. In order to overcome the difficulty of attaching temperature sensors to the wet skin surface and to enhance the calculation accuracy on evaporative resistance, we conducted an intensive skin study on a thermal manikin ‘Tore’. The relationship among the nude manikin surface temperature, the total heat loss and the wet skin surface temperature in three ambient conditions was investigated. A universal empirical equation to predict the wet skin surface temperature of a sweating thermal manikin was developed and validated on the manikin dressed in six different clothing ensembles. The skin surface temperature prediction equation in an ambient temperature range between 25.0 and 34.0 °C is Tsk=34.0–0.0132HL. It is demonstrated that the universal empirical equation is a good alternative to predicting the wet skin surface temperature and facilitates calculating the evaporative resistance of permeable clothing ensembles. Further studies on the validation of the empirical equation on different thermal manikins are needed however.
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