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Sökning: WFRF:(Holmgren Birgitta G) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Johansson, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Atrial function after left atrial epicardial cryoablation for atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of interventional cardiac electrophysiology (Print). - : Springer Science+Business Media B.V.. - 1383-875X .- 1572-8595. ; 33:1, s. 85-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To explore the effects on atrial and ventricular function of restoring sinus rhythm (SR) after epicardial cryoablation and closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) in patients with mitral valve disease and atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing surgery.METHODS: Sixty-five patients with permanent AF were randomized to mitral valve surgery combined with left atrial epicardial cryoablation and LAA closure (ABL group, n = 30) or to mitral valve surgery alone (control group, n = 35). Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography were performed before and 6 months after surgery.RESULTS: At 6 months, 73% of the patients in the ABL group and 46% of the controls were in SR. Patients in SR at 6 months had a reduction in their left ventricular diastolic diameter while the left ventricular ejection fraction was unchanged. In patients remaining in AF, the left ventricular ejection fraction was lower than at baseline. The left atrial diastolic volume was reduced after surgery, more in patients with SR than AF. In patients in SR, the peak velocity during the atrial contraction and the reservoir function were lower in the ABL group than in the control group.CONCLUSIONS: In patients in SR, signs of atrial dysfunction were observed in the ABL but not the control group. Atrial dysfunction may have existed before surgery, but the difference between the groups implies that the cryoablation procedure and/or closure of the LAA might have contributed.
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2.
  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Microbial Translocation Correlates with the Severity of Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613. ; 201:8, s. 1150-1154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbial translocation has been linked to systemic immune activation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. Here, we show that an elevated level of microbial translocation, measured as plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration, correlates with AIDS in both individuals infected with HIV type 1 and individuals infected with HIV type 2. LPS concentration also correlates with CD4(+) T cell count and viral load independently of HIV type. Furthermore, elevated plasma LPS concentration was found to be concomitant with defective innate and mitogen responsiveness. We suggest that microbial translocation may contribute to loss of CD4(+) T cells, increase in viral load, and defective immune stimuli responsiveness during both HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 infections.
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3.
  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Reply to Redd et al
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613 .- 0022-1899. ; 203:5, s. 746-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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4.
  • Özkaya Sahin, Gülsen, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Complement on HIV-2 Plasma Antiviral Activity Is Intratype Specific and Potent
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virology. - : American Society for Microbiology. - 1098-5514. ; 87:1, s. 273-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at a lower rate as compared to HIV-1 infected. Conceivably, comparative studies on immune responsiveness of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected hosts may help to explain differences in pathogenesis and transmission between the two types of infection. Previous studies have shown that the neutralizing antibody response is more potent and broader in HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection. In the present study we have further examined the function of the humoral immune response and studied the potentiating effect of complement (C') on antiviral activity of plasma from singly HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected, as well as HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. Neutralization and antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells. Results showed that addition of C' increased intra-type antiviral activity of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 plasma, although the C' effect was more pronounced with HIV-2 than HIV-1 plasma. Using the area-under-curve (AUC)-based readout, multivariate statistical analysis confirmed that type of HIV infection was independently associated with the magnitude of the C' effect. Analysis carried out with purified IgG indicated that the C' effect was largely exerted through the classical C' pathway involving IgG in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. In summary, these findings suggest that antibody binding to HIV-2 structures facilitates efficient use of C', and may thereby be one factor contributing to a strong antiviral activity present in HIV-2 infection.
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5.
  • Özkaya Sahin, Gülsen, et al. (författare)
  • Potent Intratype Neutralizing Activity Distinguishes Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) from HIV-1
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virology. - : American Society for Microbiology. - 1098-5514. ; 86:2, s. 961-971
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • HIV-2 has a lower pathogenicity and transmission rate than HIV-1. Neutralizing antibodies could be contributing to these observations. Here we explored side by side potency and breadth of intratype and intertype neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of 20 HIV-1, 20 HIV-2 and 11 dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D) seropositive individuals from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Panels of primary isolates, five HIV-1 and five HIV-2, were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells as targets. Intratype NAc in HIV-2 plasma was found to be considerably more potent, and also broader, than intratype NAc in HIV-1 plasma. This indicates that HIV-2 infected individuals display potent type-specific neutralizing antibodies, whereas such a strong type-specific antibodies are absent in HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, potency of intratype NAc was positively associated with viral load of HIV-1, but not HIV-2, suggesting that NAc in HIV-1 infection is more antigen stimulation-dependent than in HIV-2 infection where plasma viral loads typically are at least tenfold lower than in HIV-1 infection. Intertype NAc of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected was instead of low potency. HIV-D subjects had NAc to HIV-2 with similar high potency as singly HIV-2 infected individuals, whereas neutralization of HIV-1 remained poor, indicating that the difference in NAc between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections depends on the virus itself. We suggest that immunogenicity and/or antigenicity, meaning the neutralization phenotype, of HIV-2 is distinct from HIV-1, and that HIV-2 may display structures that favour triggering of potent neutralizing antibody responses.
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6.
  • van Tienen, Carla, et al. (författare)
  • HTLV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Are Associated with Increased Mortality in a Rural West African Community
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 6:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Survival of people with HIV-2 and HTLV-1 infection is better than that of HIV-1 infected people, but long-term follow-up data are rare. We compared mortality rates of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-1 infected subjects with those of retrovirus-uninfected people in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: In 1990, 1997 and 2007, adult residents (aged >= 15 years) were interviewed, a blood sample was drawn and retroviral status was determined. An annual census was used to ascertain the vital status of all subjects. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HR), comparing retrovirus-infected versus uninfected people. Results: A total of 5376 subjects were included; 197 with HIV-1, 424 with HIV-2 and 325 with HTLV-1 infection. The median follow-up time was 10.9 years (range 0.0-20.3). The crude mortality rates were 9.6 per 100 person-years of observation (95% confidence interval 7.1-12.9) for HIV-1, 4.1 (3.4-5.0) for HIV-2, 3.6 (2.9-4.6) for HTLV-1, and 1.6 (1.5-1.8) for retrovirus-negative subjects. The HR comparing the mortality rate of infected to that of uninfected subjects varied significantly with age. The adjusted HR for HIV-1 infection varied from 4.0 in the oldest age group (>= 60 years) to 12.7 in the youngest (15-29 years). The HR for HIV-2 infection varied from 1.2 (oldest) to 9.1 (youngest), and for HTLV-1 infection from 1.2 (oldest) to 3.8 (youngest). Conclusions: HTLV-1 infection is associated with significantly increased mortality. The mortality rate of HIV-2 infection, although lower than that of HIV-1 infection, is also increased, especially among young people.
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7.
  • van Tienen, Carla, et al. (författare)
  • HTLV-1 in rural Guinea-Bissau: prevalence, incidence and a continued association with HIV between 1990 and 2007
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Retrovirology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1742-4690. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: HTLV-1 is endemic in Guinea-Bissau, and the highest prevalence in the adult population (5.2%) was observed in a rural area, Caio, in 1990. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both prevalent in this area as well. Cross-sectional associations have been reported for HTLV-1 with HIV infection, but the trends in prevalence of HTLV-1 and HIV associations are largely unknown, especially in Sub Saharan Africa. In the current study, data from three cross-sectional community surveys performed in 1990, 1997 and 2007, were used to assess changes in HTLV-1 prevalence, incidence and its associations with HIV-1 and HIV-2 and potential risk factors. Results: HTLV-1 prevalence was 5.2% in 1990, 5.9% in 1997 and 4.6% in 2007. Prevalence was higher among women than men in all 3 surveys and increased with age. The Odds Ratio (OR) of being infected with HTLV-1 was significantly higher for HIV positive subjects in all surveys after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The risk of HTLV-1 infection was higher in subjects with an HTLV-1 positive mother versus an uninfected mother (OR 4.6, CI 2.6-8.0). The HTLV-1 incidence was stable between 1990-1997 (Incidence Rate (IR) 1.8/1,000 pyo) and 1997-2007 (IR 1.6/1,000 pyo) (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 0.9, CI 0.4-1.7). The incidence of HTLV-1 among HIV-positive individuals was higher compared to HIV negative individuals (IRR 2.5, CI 1.0-6.2), while the HIV incidence did not differ by HTLV-1 status (IRR 1.2, CI 0.5-2.7). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest community based study that has reported on HTLV-1 prevalence and associations with HIV. HTLV-1 is endemic in this rural community in West Africa with a stable incidence and a high prevalence. The prevalence increases with age and is higher in women than men. HTLV-1 infection is associated with HIV infection, and longitudinal data indicate HIV infection may be a risk factor for acquiring HTLV-1, but not vice versa. Mother to child transmission is likely to contribute to the epidemic.
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8.
  • Vinner, Lasse, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence analysis of HIV-1 isolates from Guinea-Bissau: selection of vaccine epitopes relevant in both West African and European countries.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1600-0463. ; 119:8, s. 487-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For a CD8 epitope-based vaccine to match different geographic locations, the targeted epitopes for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) must be present in the local circulating HIV-1 strains. Secondly, the vaccine epitopes should match the host population HLA types. We characterized two new HIV-1 isolates from Guinea-Bissau. Also, we have identified 15 subdominant CD8 epitopes representing common HLA super-types theoretically covering most HLA alleles in any population. Herein we demonstrate that the selected vaccine epitopes are well conserved and simultaneously present in sequences from West Africa and Denmark. Use of the selected epitopes will likely ensure 10 immune targets in the majority of candidates for experimental therapeutic vaccination in both geographic regions. Our results warrant testing of the selected vaccine epitopes in both geographic locations.
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