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Sökning: WFRF:(Isaacs Sarah) > (2010-2014) > (2010)

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1.
  • Xu, Jianfeng, et al. (författare)
  • Inherited genetic variant predisposes to aggressive but not indolent prostate cancer.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 1091-6490. ; 107:5, s. 2136-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autopsy studies suggest that most aging men will develop lesions that, if detected clinically, would be diagnosed as prostate cancer (PCa). Most of these cancers are indolent and remain localized; however, a subset of PCa is aggressive and accounts for more than 27,000 deaths in the United States annually. Identification of factors specifically associated with risk for more aggressive PCa is urgently needed to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment of this common disease. To search for such factors, we compared the frequencies of SNPs among PCa patients who were defined as having either more aggressive or less aggressive disease in four populations examined in the Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study performed by the National Cancer Institute. SNPs showing possible associations with disease severity were further evaluated in an additional three independent study populations from the United States and Sweden. In total, we studied 4,829 and 12,205 patients with more and less aggressive disease, respectively. We found that the frequency of the TT genotype of SNP rs4054823 at 17p12 was consistently higher among patients with more aggressive compared with less aggressive disease in each of the seven populations studied, with an overall P value of 2.1 x 10(-8) under a recessive model, exceeding the conservative genome-wide significance level. The difference in frequency was largest between patients with high-grade, non-organ-confined disease compared with those with low-grade, organ-confined disease. This study demonstrates that inherited variants predisposing to aggressive but not indolent PCa exist in the genome, and suggests that the clinical potential of such variants as potential early markers for risk of aggressive PCa should be evaluated.
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2.
  • Craddock, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7289, s. 713-720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed,19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated similar to 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.</p>
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3.
  • Christensen, G Bryce, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide linkage analysis of 1,233 prostate cancer pedigrees from the International Consortium for prostate cancer Genetics using novel sumLINK and sumLOD analyses.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 70, s. 735-744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is generally believed to have a strong inherited component, but the search for susceptibility genes has been hindered by the effects of genetic heterogeneity. The recently developed sumLINK and sumLOD statistics are powerful tools for linkage analysis in the presence of heterogeneity. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of 1,233 PC pedigrees from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) using two novel statistics, the sumLINK and sumLOD. For both statistics, dominant and recessive genetic models were considered. False discovery rate (FDR) analysis was conducted to assess the effects of multiple testing. RESULTS: Our analysis identified significant linkage evidence at chromosome 22q12, confirming previous findings by the initial conventional analyses of the same ICPCG data. Twelve other regions were identified with genome-wide suggestive evidence for linkage. Seven regions (1q23, 5q11, 5q35, 6p21, 8q12, 11q13, 20p11-q11) are near loci previously identified in the initial ICPCG pooled data analysis or the subset of aggressive PC pedigrees. Three other regions (1p12, 8p23, 19q13) confirm loci reported by others, and two (2p24, 6q27) are novel susceptibility loci. FDR testing indicates that over 70% of these results are likely true positive findings. Statistical recombinant mapping narrowed regions to an average of 9 cM. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent genomic regions with the greatest consistency of positive linkage evidence across a very large collection of high-risk PC pedigrees using new statistical tests that deal powerfully with heterogeneity. These regions are excellent candidates for further study to identify PC predisposition genes. Prostate (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</p>
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4.
  • Xu, Jianfeng, et al. (författare)
  • Inherited genetic variant predisposes to aggressive but not indolent prostate cancer.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 107:5, s. 2136-2140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Autopsy studies suggest that most aging men will develop lesions that, if detected clinically, would be diagnosed as prostate cancer (PCa). Most of these cancers are indolent and remain localized; however, a subset of PCa is aggressive and accounts for more than 27,000 deaths in the United States annually. Identification of factors specifically associated with risk for more aggressive PCa is urgently needed to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment of this common disease. To search for such factors, we compared the frequencies of SNPs among PCa patients who were defined as having either more aggressive or less aggressive disease in four populations examined in the Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study performed by the National Cancer Institute. SNPs showing possible associations with disease severity were further evaluated in an additional three independent study populations from the United States and Sweden. In total, we studied 4,829 and 12,205 patients with more and less aggressive disease, respectively. We found that the frequency of the TT genotype of SNP rs4054823 at 17p12 was consistently higher among patients with more aggressive compared with less aggressive disease in each of the seven populations studied, with an overall P value of 2.1 x 10(-8) under a recessive model, exceeding the conservative genome-wide significance level. The difference in frequency was largest between patients with high-grade, non-organ-confined disease compared with those with low-grade, organ-confined disease. This study demonstrates that inherited variants predisposing to aggressive but not indolent PCa exist in the genome, and suggests that the clinical potential of such variants as potential early markers for risk of aggressive PCa should be evaluated.</p>
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5.
  • Johansson, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Linkage and genome-wide association analysis of obesity-related phenotypes : association of weight with the MGAT1 gene
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - 1930-7381 .- 1930-739X. ; 18:4, s. 803-808
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>As major risk-factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits has been of interest for decades. Recently, a limited number of common genetic variants, which have replicated in different populations, have been identified. One approach to increase the statistical power in genetic mapping studies is to focus on populations with increased levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and reduced genetic diversity. We have performed joint linkage and genome-wide association analyses for weight and BMI in 3,448 (linkage) and 3,925 (association) partly overlapping healthy individuals from five European populations. A total of four chromosomal regions (two for weight and two for BMI) showed suggestive linkage (lod &gt;2.69) either in one of the populations or in the joint data. At the genome-wide level (nominal <em>P</em> &lt; 1.6 × 10<sup>−7</sup>, Bonferroni-adjusted <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05) one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs12517906) (nominal <em>P</em> = 7.3 × 10<sup>−8</sup>) was associated with weight, whereas none with BMI. The SNP associated with weight is located close to <em>MGAT1</em>. The monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) enzyme family is known to be involved in dietary fat absorption. There was no overlap between the linkage regions and the associated SNPs. Our results show that genetic effects influencing weight and BMI are shared across diverse European populations, even though some of these populations have experienced recent population bottlenecks and/or been affected by genetic drift. The analysis enabled us to identify a new candidate gene, <em>MGAT1</em>, associated with weight in women.</p>
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6.
  • Köttgen, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • New loci associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 42:5, s. 376-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem, and recent genetic studies have identified common CKD susceptibility variants. The CKDGen consortium performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 67,093 individuals of European ancestry from 20 predominantly population-based studies in order to identify new susceptibility loci for reduced renal function as estimated by serum creatinine (eGFRcrea), serum cystatin c (eGFRcys) and CKD (eGFRcrea &lt; 60 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>; <em>n</em> = 5,807 individuals with CKD (cases)). Follow-up of the 23 new genome-wide–significant loci (<em>P</em> &lt; 5 × 10<sup>−8</sup>) in 22,982 replication samples identified 13 new loci affecting renal function and CKD (in or near <em>LASS2, GCKR, ALMS1, TFDP2, DAB2, SLC34A1, VEGFA, PRKAG2, PIP5K1B, ATXN2, DACH1, UBE2Q2</em> and <em>SLC7A9</em>) and 7 loci suspected to affect creatinine production and secretion (<em>CPS1, SLC22A2, TMEM60, WDR37, SLC6A13, WDR72</em> and <em>BCAS3</em>). These results further our understanding of the biologic mechanisms of kidney function by identifying loci that potentially influence nephrogenesis, podocyte function, angiogenesis, solute transport and metabolic functions of the kidney.</p>
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7.
  • Pattaro, Cristian, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of genome-wide data from five European isolates reveals an association of COL22A1, SYT1, and GABRR2 with serum creatinine level
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350 .- 1471-2350. ; 11, s. 41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Serum creatinine (S<sub>CR</sub>) is the most important biomarker for a quick and non-invasive assessment of kidney function in population-based surveys. A substantial proportion of the inter-individual variability in S<sub>CR </sub>level is explicable by genetic factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of S<sub>CR </sub>undertaken in five population isolates ('discovery cohorts'), all of which are part of the European Special Population Network (EUROSPAN) project. Genes showing the strongest evidence for an association with S<sub>CR </sub>(candidate loci) were replicated in two additional population-based samples ('replication cohorts').</p> <p><strong>Results </strong></p> <p>After the discovery meta-analysis, 29 loci were selected for replication. Association between S<sub>CR </sub>level and polymorphisms in the collagen type XXII alpha 1 (<em>COL22A1</em>) gene, on chromosome 8, and in the synaptotagmin-1 (<em>SYT1</em>) gene, on chromosome 12, were successfully replicated in the replication cohorts (p value = 1.0 × 10<sup>-6 </sup>and 1.7 × 10<sup>-4</sup>, respectively). Evidence of association was also found for polymorphisms in a locus including the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor rho-2 (<em>GABRR2</em>) gene and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-J1 (<em>UBE2J1</em>) gene (replication p value = 3.6 × 10<sup>-3</sup>). Previously reported findings, associating glomerular filtration rate with SNPs in the uromodulin (<em>UMOD</em>) gene and in the schroom family member 3 (<em>SCHROOM3</em>) gene were also replicated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>While confirming earlier results, our study provides new insights in the understanding of the genetic basis of serum creatinine regulatory processes. In particular, the association with the genes <em>SYT1 </em>and <em>GABRR2 </em>corroborate previous findings that highlighted a possible role of the neurotransmitters GABA<sub>A </sub>receptors in the regulation of the glomerular basement membrane and a possible interaction between GABA<sub>A</sub>receptors and synaptotagmin-I at the podocyte level.</p>
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