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Sökning: WFRF:(Jacob J.) > (2000-2009)

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  • Liu, Kui, et al. (författare)
  • Kallikrein genes are associated with lupus and glomerular basement membrane-specific antibody-induced nephritis in mice and humans
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - 0021-9738 .- 1558-8238. ; 119:4, s. 911-923
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immune-mediated nephritis contributes to disease in systemic lupus erythematosus, Goodpasture syndrome (caused by antibodies specific for glomerular basement membrane [anti-GBM antibodies]), and spontaneous lupus nephritis. Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody-induced and spontaneous lupus nephritis. This study sought to clarify the genetic and molecular factors that maybe responsible for enhanced immune-mediated renal disease in these models. When the kidneys of 3 mouse strains sensitive to anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis were compared with those of 2 control strains using microarray analysis, one-fifth of the underexpressed genes belonged to the kallikrein gene family,which encodes serine esterases. Mouse strains that upregulated renal and urinary kallikreins exhibited less evidence of disease. Antagonizing the kallikrein pathway augmented disease, while agonists dampened the severity of anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis. In addition, nephritis-sensitive mouse strains had kallikrein haplotypes that were distinct from those of control strains, including several regulatory polymorphisms,some of which were associated with functional consequences. Indeed, increased susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis and spontaneous lupus nephritis was achieved by breeding mice with a genetic interval harboring the kallikrein genes onto a disease-resistant background. Finally, both human SLE and spontaneous lupus nephritis were found to be associated with kallikrein genes, particularly KLK1 and the KLK3 promoter, when DNA SNPs from independent cohorts of SLE patients and controls were compared. Collectively, these studies suggest that kallikreins are protective disease-associated genes in anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis and lupus.
  • Douglas, K. B., et al. (författare)
  • Complement receptor 2 polymorphisms associated with systemic lupus erythematosus modulate alternative splicing
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - 1466-4879 .- 1476-5470. ; 10:5, s. 457-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic factors influence susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A recent family-based analysis in Caucasian and Chinese populations provided evidence for association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) gene with SLE. Here we confirmed this result in a case-control analysis of an independent European-derived population including 2084 patients with SLE and 2853 healthy controls. A haplotype formed by the minor alleles of three CR2 SNPs (rs1048971, rs17615, rs4308977) showed significant association with decreased risk of SLE (30.4% in cases vs 32.6% in controls, P=0.016, OR=0.90 (0.82-0.98)). Two of these SNPs are in exon 10, directly 5' of an alternatively spliced exon preferentially expressed in follicular dendritic cells (FDC), and the third is in the alternatively spliced exon. Effects of these SNPs and a fourth SNP in exon 11 (rs17616) on alternative splicing were evaluated. We found that the minor alleles of these SNPs decreased splicing efficiency of exon 11 both in vitro and ex vivo. These findings further implicate CR2 in the pathogenesis of SLE and suggest that CR2 variants alter the maintenance of tolerance and autoantibody production in the secondary lymphoid tissues where B cells and FDCs interact.
  • Mikkelsen, Tarjei S, et al. (författare)
  • Genome of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica reveals innovation in non-coding sequences
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 447:7141, s. 167-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of the grey, short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). As the first metatherian ('marsupial') species to be sequenced, the opossum provides a unique perspective on the organization and evolution of mammalian genomes. Distinctive features of the opossum chromosomes provide support for recent theories about genome evolution and function, including a strong influence of biased gene conversion on nucleotide sequence composition, and a relationship between chromosomal characteristics and X chromosome inactivation. Comparison of opossum and eutherian genomes also reveals a sharp difference in evolutionary innovation between protein-coding and non-coding functional elements. True innovation in protein-coding genes seems to be relatively rare, with lineage-specific differences being largely due to diversification and rapid turnover in gene families involved in environmental interactions. In contrast, about 20% of eutherian conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) are recent inventions that postdate the divergence of Eutheria and Metatheria. A substantial proportion of these eutherian-specific CNEs arose from sequence inserted by transposable elements, pointing to transposons as a major creative force in the evolution of mammalian gene regulation.
  • Purcell, Shaun M., et al. (författare)
  • Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 460:7256, s. 748-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with a lifetime risk of about 1%, characterized by hallucinations, delusions and cognitive deficits, with heritability estimated at up to 80%(1,2). We performed a genome-wide association study of 3,322 European individuals with schizophrenia and 3,587 controls. Here we show, using two analytic approaches, the extent to which common genetic variation underlies the risk of schizophrenia. First, we implicate the major histocompatibility complex. Second, we provide molecular genetic evidence for a substantial polygenic component to the risk of schizophrenia involving thousands of common alleles of very small effect. We show that this component also contributes to the risk of bipolar disorder, but not to several non-psychiatric diseases.
  • Twigger, S, et al. (författare)
  • Rat Genome Database : A comparative genomics platform for rat mouse and human.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Medicine. - Springer. ; s. B30
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a NIH funded project who’s stated mission is “to collect, consolidate, and integrate data generated from ongoing rat genetic and genomic research efforts and make these data widely available to the scientific community.” In a collaboration between the Medical College of Wisconsin, the Jackson Lab, the National Center for Biotechnology and Information and the Genetics Lundberg Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden, RGD has been created to meet these stated aims. The primary focus of RGD is to aid Rat researchers in their work studying the rat as a model organism for human disease. To support these studies we have integrated a large amount of rat genetic and genomic resources in RGD and these are constantly being expanded through ongoing literature curation. One of the major features of RGD version 1.1, released in January of this year, is incorporation of QTL data to facilitate physiological genomics studies relating disease with the genome. In addition, a dynamic sequence-based homology tool is in final testing which will enable Rat, Mouse and Human researchers to view mapped genes and sequences and their locations in the other two organisms. We hope to release this tool in the second quarter of 2001. This will facilitate the application of results in one species to experiments in another species. In collaboration with the Mouse Genome Database and NCBI, close links are being created between RGD and MGD, LocusLink and UniGene to increase access to each set of data. To support its other general functions RGD has a variety of tools available for the rat researcher, plus ones that are equally useful to researchers working in other organisms and a sampling of these tools will be presented. Thus RGD is not only a valuable resource for those working with the rat but also for researchers in other model organisms wishing to harness the existing genetic and physiological data available in the rat to complement their own work.
  • Veith, Frank J., et al. (författare)
  • Collected world and single center experience with endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - 0003-4932. ; 250:5, s. 818-824
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Case and single center reports have documented the feasibility and suggested the effectiveness of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs), but the role and value of such treatment remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: To clarify these we examined a collected experience with use of EVAR for RAAA treatment from 49 centers. METHODS: Data were obtained by questionnaires from these centers, updated from 13 centers committed to EVAR treatment whenever possible and included treatment details from a single center and information on 1037 patients treated by EVAR and 763 patients treated by open repair (OR). RESULTS: Overall 30-day mortality after EVAR in 1037 patients was 21.2%. Centers performing EVAR for RAAAs whenever possible did so in 28% to 79% (mean 49.1%) of their patients, had a 30-day mortality of 19.7% (range: 0%-32%) for 680 EVAR patients and 36.3% (range: 8%-53%) for 763 OR patients (P < 0.0001). Supraceliac aortic balloon control was obtained in 19.1% +/- 12.0% (+/-SD) of 680 EVAR patients. Abdominal compartment syndrome was treated by some form of decompression in 12.2% +/- 8.3% (+/-SD) of these EVAR patients. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that EVAR has a lower procedural mortality at 30 days than OR in at least some patients and that EVAR is better than OR for treating RAAA patients provided they have favorable anatomy; adequate skills, facilities, and protocols are available; and optimal strategies, techniques, and adjuncts are employed.
  • Bonjer, H. Jacob, et al. (författare)
  • Laparoscopically assisted vs open colectomy for colon cancer : a meta-analysis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Archives of surgery (Chicago. 1960). - 0004-0010 .- 1538-3644. ; 142:3, s. 298-303
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of trials randomizing patients with colon cancer to laparoscopically assisted or open colectomy to enhance the power in determining whether laparoscopic colectomy for cancer is oncologically safe. DATA SOURCES: The databases of the Barcelona, Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy (COST), Colon Cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection (COLOR), and Conventional vs Laparoscopic-Assisted Surgery in Patients With Colorectal Cancer (CLASICC) trials were the data sources for the study. STUDY SELECTION: Patients who had at least 3 years of complete follow-up data were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: Patients who had undergone curative surgery before March 1, 2000, were studied. Three-year disease-free survival and overall survival were the primary outcomes of this analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 1765 patients, 229 were excluded, leaving 796 patients in the laparoscopically assisted arm and 740 patients in the open arm for analysis. Three-year disease-free survival rates in the laparoscopically assisted and open arms were 75.8% and 75.3%, respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference, -5% to 4%). The associated common hazard ratio (laparoscopically assisted vs open surgery with adjustment for sex, age, and stage) was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.80-1.22; P = .92). The 3-year overall survival rate after laparoscopic surgery was 82.2% and after open surgery was 83.5% (95% CI of the difference, -3% to 5%). The associated hazard ratio was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.83-1.37; P = .61). Disease-free and overall survival rates for stages I, II, and III evaluated separately did not differ between the 2 treatments. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopically assisted colectomy for cancer is oncologically safe.
  • Counsell, G., et al. (författare)
  • Tritium retention in next step devices and the requirements for mitigation and removal techniques
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. - 0741-3335. ; 48:12B, s. B189-B199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanisms underlying the retention of fuel species in tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components are presented, together with estimates for the corresponding retention of tritium in ITER. The consequential requirement for new and improved schemes to reduce the tritium inventory is highlighted and the results of ongoing studies into a range of techniques are presented, together with estimates of the tritium removal rate in ITER in each case. Finally, an approach involving the integration of many tritium removal techniques into the ITER operational schedule is proposed as a means to extend the period of operations before major intervention is required.
  • Lahermo, P., et al. (författare)
  • A quality assessment survey of SNP genotyping laboratories
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 27:7, s. 711-714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To survey the quality of SNP genotyping, a joint Nordic quality assessment (QA) round was organized between 11 laboratories in the Nordic and Baltic countries. The QA round involved blinded genotyping of 47 DNA samples for 18 or six randomly selected SNPs. The methods used by the participating laboratories included all major platforms for small, to medium-size SNP genotyping. The laboratories used their standard procedures for SNP assay design, genotyping, and quality control. Based on the joint results from all laboratories, a consensus genotype for each DNA sample and SNP was determined by the coordinator of the survey, and the results from each laboratory were compared to this genotype. The overall genotyping accuracy achieved in the survey was excellent. Six laboratories delivered genotype data that were in full agreement with the consensus genotype. The average accuracy per SNP varied from 99.1 to 100% between the laboratories, and it was frequently 100% for the majority of the assays for which SNP genotypes were reported. Lessons from the survey are that special attention should be given to the quality of the DNA samples prior to genotyping, and that a conservative approach for calling the genotypes should be used to achieve a high accuracy. Hum Mutat 27(7), 711-714,2006.
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