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Sökning: WFRF:(James A. J.) > (2000-2004)

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  • Gross, C. J., et al. (författare)
  • Performance of the Recoil Mass Spectrometer and its Detector Systems at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 450, s. 12-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recently commissioned Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is described. Consisting of a momentum separator followed by an E-D-E Rochester-type mass spectrometer, the RMS is the centerpiece of the nuclear structure endstation at the HRIBF. Designed to transport ions with rigidities near K = 100, the RMS has acceptances of +/- 10% in energy and +/- 4.9% in mass-to-charge ratio. Recent experimental results are used to illustrate the detection capabilities of the RMS, which is compatible with many detectors and devices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hillier, Ladeana W, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 432:7018, s. 695-716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome--composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes--provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes. For example, the evolutionary distance between chicken and human provides high specificity in detecting functional elements, both non-coding and coding. Notably, many conserved non-coding sequences are far from genes and cannot be assigned to defined functional classes. In coding regions the evolutionary dynamics of protein domains and orthologous groups illustrate processes that distinguish the lineages leading to birds and mammals. The distinctive properties of avian microchromosomes, together with the inferred patterns of conserved synteny, provide additional insights into vertebrate chromosome architecture.</p>
  • Bower, K. N., et al. (författare)
  • ACE-2 HILLCLOUD. An overview of the ACE-2 ground-based cloud experiment
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Tellus. Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology. - Taylor & Francis. - 0280-6509. ; 52:2, s. 750-778
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ACE-2 HILLCLOUD experiment was carried out on the island of Tenerife in June-July 1997 to investigate the interaction of the boundary layer aerosol with a hill cap cloud forming over a ridge to the north-east of the island. The cloud was used as a natural flow through reactor to investigate the dependence of the cloud microphysics and chemistry on the characteristics of the aerosols and trace gases entering cloud, and to simultaneously study the influence of the physical and chemical processes occurring within the cloud on the size distribution, chemical and hygroscopic properties of the aerosol exiting cloud. 5 major ground base sites were used, measuring trace gases and aerosols upwind and downwind of the cloud, and cloud microphysics and chemistry and interstitial aerosol and gases within the cloud on the hill. 8 intensive measurement periods or runs were undertaken during cloud events, (nocturnally for seven of the eight runs) and were carried out in a wide range of airmass conditions from clean maritime to polluted continental. Polluted air was characterised by higher than average concentrations of ozone (> 50 ppbv), fine and accumulation mode aerosols (> 3000 and > 1500 cm -3 , respectively) and higher aerosol mass loadings. Cloud droplet number concentrations N, increased from 50 cm -3 in background maritime air to > 2500 cm -3 in aged polluted continental air, a concentration much higher than had previously been detected. Surprisingly, N was seen to vary almost linearly with aerosol number across this range. The droplet aerosol analyser (DAA) measured higher droplet numbers than the corrected forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) in the most polluted air, but at other times there was good agreement (FSSP = 0.95 DAA with an r 2 = 0.89 for N < 1200 cm -3 ). Background ammonia gas concentrations were around 0.3 ppbv even in air originating over the ocean, another unexpected but important result for the region. NO 2 was present in background concentrations of typically 15 pptv to 100 pptv and NO 3 . (the nitrate radical) was observed at night throughout. Calculations suggest NO 3 . losses were mainly by reaction with DMS to produce nitric acid. Low concentrations of SO 2 (~30 pptv), HNO 3 and HCl were always present. HNO 3 concentrations were higher in polluted episodes and calculations implied that these exceeded those which could be accounted for by NO 2 oxidation. It is presumed that nitric and hydrochloric acids were present as a result of outgassing from aerosol, the HNO 3 from nitrate rich aerosol transported into the region from upwind of Tenerife, and HCl from sea salt aerosol newly formed at the sea surface. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and ozone were abundant (i.e., were well in excess over SO 2 throughout the experiment). Occasions of significant aerosol growth following cloud processing were observed, particularly in cleaner cases. Observations and modelling suggested this was due mainly to the take up of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and ammonia by the smallest activated aerosol particles. On a few occasions a small contribution was made by the in-cloud oxidation of S(IV). The implications of these results from HILLCLOUD for the climatologically more important stratocumulus Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) clouds are considered.
  • Li, Jian-Liang, et al. (författare)
  • A genome scan for modifiers of age at onset in Huntington disease : The HD MAPS study.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 73:3, s. 682-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Huntington disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat within the coding region of a novel gene on 4p16.3. Although the variation in age at onset is partly explained by the size of the expanded repeat, the unexplained variation in age at onset is strongly heritable (h2=0.56), which suggests that other genes modify the age at onset of HD. To identify these modifier loci, we performed a 10-cM density genomewide scan in 629 affected sibling pairs (295 pedigrees and 695 individuals), using ages at onset adjusted for the expanded and normal CAG repeat sizes. Because all those studied were HD affected, estimates of allele sharing identical by descent at and around the HD locus were adjusted by a positionally weighted method to correct for the increased allele sharing at 4p. Suggestive evidence for linkage was found at 4p16 (LOD=1.93), 6p21-23 (LOD=2.29), and 6q24-26 (LOD=2.28), which may be useful for investigation of genes that modify age at onset of HD.</p>
  • Aspholm-Hurtig, Marina, et al. (författare)
  • Functional adaptation of BabA, the H. pylori ABO blood group antigen binding adhesin.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - 1095-9203. ; 305:5683, s. 519-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adherence by Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of gastric disease. Here, we report that more than 95% of strains that bind fucosylated blood group antigen bind A, B, and O antigens (generalists), whereas 60% of adherent South American Amerindian strains bind blood group O antigens best (specialists). This specialization coincides with the unique predominance of blood group O in these Amerindians. Strains differed about 1500-fold in binding affinities, and diversifying selection was evident in babA sequences. We propose that cycles of selection for increased and decreased bacterial adherence contribute to babA diversity and that these cycles have led to gradual replacement of generalist binding by specialist binding in blood group O–dominant human populations.
  • Bache, Iben, et al. (författare)
  • An excess of chromosome 1 breakpoints in male infertility.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438. ; 12:12, s. 993-1000
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a search for potential infertility loci, which might be revealed by clustering of chromosomal breakpoints, we compiled 464 infertile males with a balanced rearrangement from Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database (MCNdb) and compared their karyotypes with those of a Danish nation-wide cohort. We excluded Robertsonian translocations, rearrangements involving sex chromosomes and common variants. We identified 10 autosomal bands, five of which were on chromosome 1, with a large excess of breakpoints in the infertility group. Some of these could potentially harbour a male-specific infertility locus. However, a general excess of breakpoints almost everywhere on chromosome 1 was observed among the infertile males: 26.5 versus 14.5% in the cohort. This excess was observed both for translocation and inversion carriers, especially pericentric inversions, both for published and unpublished cases, and was significantly associated with azoospermia. The largest number of breakpoints was reported in 1q21; FISH mapping of four of these breakpoints revealed that they did not involve the same region at the molecular level. We suggest that chromosome 1 harbours a critical domain whose integrity is essential for male fertility.
  • Hyytinen, Eija-R, et al. (författare)
  • Pattern of somatic androgen receptor gene mutations in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Laboratory Investigation. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1530-0307. ; 82:11, s. 1591-1598
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Progression to hormone-refractory growth of prostate cancer has been suggested to be mediated by androgen receptor (AR) gene alterations. We analyzed AR for mutations and amplifications in 21 locally recurrent prostate carcinomas treated with orchiectomy, estrogens, or a combination of orchiectomy and estramustine phosphate using fluorescence in situ hybridization, single-strand conformation polymorphism, and DNA sequence analyses. Amplification was observed in 4 of 16 (25%) and amino acid changing mutations was observed in 7 of 21 (33%) of the tumors, respectively. Two (50%) tumors with AR amplification also had missense mutation of the gene. Four of five (80%) cancers that were treated with a combination of orchiectomy and estramustine phosphate had a mutation clustered at codons 514 to 533 in the N-terminal domain of AR. In functional studies, these mutations did not render AR more sensitive to testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, or beta-estradiol. Tumors treated by orchiectomy had mutations predominantly in the ligand-binding domain. In summary, we found molecular alterations of AR in more than half of the prostate carcinomas that recurred locally. Some tumors developed both aberrations, possibly enhancing the cancer cell to respond efficiently to low levels of androgens. Furthermore, localization of point mutations in AR seems to be influenced by the type of treatment.
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