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Sökning: WFRF:(Jansson Johan) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Hansson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Snus (Swedish smokeless tobacco) use and risk of stroke: pooled analyses of incidence and survival
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 276:1, s. 87-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Snus is a moist smokeless tobacco product with high nicotine content. Its use has a short-term effect on the cardiovascular system, but the relationship between snus use and stroke is unclear. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between use of snus and incidence of and survival after stroke, both overall and according to subtypes. Methods. Pooled analyses of eight Swedish prospective cohort studies were conducted, including 130 485 men who never smoked. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incidence and death after diagnosis using Cox proportional hazard regression models and case fatality and survival using logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier methods, respectively. Results. No associations were observed between the use of snus and the risk of overall stroke (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.17) or of any of the stroke subtypes. The odds ratio (OR) of 28-day case fatality was 1.42 (95% CI 0.99-2.04) amongst users of snus who had experienced a stroke, and the HR of death during the follow-up period was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08-1.61). Conclusion. Use of snus was not associated with the risk of stroke. Hence, nicotine is unlikely to contribute importantly to the pathophysiology of stroke. However, case fatality was increased in snus users, compared with nonusers, but further studies are needed to determine any possible causal mechanisms.
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3.
  • Hansson, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Use of snus and acute myocardial infarction: pooled analysis of eight prospective observational studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 1573-7284 .- 0393-2990. ; 27:10, s. 771-779
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of snus (also referred to as Scandinavian or Swedish moist smokeless tobacco), which is common in Sweden and increasing elsewhere, is receiving increasing attention since considered a tobacco smoke "potential reduction exposure product". Snus delivers a high dose of nicotine with possible hemodynamic effects, but its impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether snus use is associated with risk of and survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Data from eight prospective cohort studies set in Sweden was pooled and reanalysed. The relative risk of first time AMI and 28-day case-fatality was calculated for 130,361 men who never smoked. During 2,262,333 person-years of follow-up, 3,390 incident events of AMI were identified. Current snus use was not associated with risk of AMI (pooled multivariable hazard ratio 1.04, 95 % confidence interval 0.93 to 1.17). The short-term case fatality rate appeared increased in snus users (odds ratio 1.28, 95 % confidence interval 0.99 to 1.68). This study does not support any association between use of snus and development of AMI. Hence, toxic components other than nicotine appear implicated in the pathophysiology of smoking related ischemic heart disease. Case fatality after AMI is seemingly increased among snus users, but this relationship may be due to confounding by socioeconomic or life style factors.
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4.
  • Heid, Iris M, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:11, s. 949-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10(-9) to P = 1.8 × 10(-40)) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10(-3) to P = 1.2 × 10(-13)). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.
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5.
  • Hoffman, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Computation of slat noise sources using adaptive FEM and lighthill's analogy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: 19th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This is a summary of preliminary results from simulations with the 30P30N high-lift device. We used the General Galerkin finite element method (G2), where no explicit subgrid model is used, and where the computational mesh is adaptively refined with respect to a posteriori error estimates for a quantity of interest. The mesh is fully unstructured and the solutions are time-resolved, which are key ingredients for solving challenging industrial applications in the field of aeroacoustics. We present preliminary results containing time-averaged quantities and snapshots of unsteady quantities, all reasonably agreeing with previous computational efforts. One important finding is that the use of adaptively generated meshes seems to be a more effcient way of computing aeroacoustic sources than by using "handmade" meshes.
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6.
  • Hoffman, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Time-resolved adaptive FEM simulation of the DLR-F11 aircraft model at high Reynolds number
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: 52nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting - AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition, SciTech 2014. - 9781624102561
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We present a time-resolved, adaptive finite element method for aerodynamics, together with the results from the HiLiftPW-2 workshop, where this method is used to compute the flow past a DLR-F11 aircraft model at realistic Reynolds number. The mesh is automatically constructed by the method as part of the computation, and no explicit turbulence model is needed. The effect of unresolved turbulent boundary layers is modeled by a simple parametrization of the wall shear stress in terms of the skin friction. In the extreme case of very high Reynolds numbers we approximate the small skin friction by zero skin friction, corresponding to a free slip boundary condition, which results in a computational model without any model parameter that needs tuning. Thus, the simulation methodology by- passes the main challenges posed by high Reynolds number CFD: the design of an optimal computational mesh, turbulence (or subgrid) modeling, and the cost of boundary layer res- olution. The results from HiLiftPW-2 presented in this report show good agreement with experimental data for a range of different angles of attack, while using orders of magnitude fewer degrees of freedom than what is needed in state of the art methods such as RANS. 
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8.
  • Hoffman, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Unicorn : Parallel adaptive finite element simulation of turbulent flow and fluid-structure interaction for deforming domains and complex geometry
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We present a framework for adaptive finite element computation of turbulent flow and fluid-structure interaction, with focus on general algorithms that allow for complex geometry and deforming domains. We give basic models and finite element discretization methods, adaptive algorithms and strategies for e cient parallel implementation. To illustrate the capabilities of the computational framework, we show a number of application examples from aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, biomedicine and geophysics. The computational tools are free to download open source as Unicorn, and as a high performance branch of the finite element problem solving environment DOLFIN, both part of the FEniCS project
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9.
  • Hoffman, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Unicorn : Parallel adaptive finite element simulation of turbulent flow and fluid-structure interaction for deforming domains and complex geometry
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Computers & Fluids. - 0045-7930 .- 1879-0747. ; 80:SI, s. 310-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a framework for adaptive finite element computation of turbulent flow and fluid structure interaction, with focus on general algorithms that allow for complex geometry and deforming domains. We give basic models and finite element discretization methods, adaptive algorithms and strategies for efficient parallel implementation. To illustrate the capabilities of the computational framework, we show a number of application examples from aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, biomedicine and geophysics. The computational tools are free to download open source as Unicorn, and as a high performance branch of the finite element problem solving environment DOLFIN, both part of the FEniCS project.
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