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Sökning: WFRF:(Jansson Johan) > (2020-2021)

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  • Sundström, Johan, Professor, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Weight gain and blood pressure
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0263-6352 .- 1473-5598. ; 38:3, s. 387-394
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Although the causality of the obesity—hypertension association is established, the potential for prevention is not. We hypothesized that weight gain between early adulthood and mid-life is associated with higher mid-life blood pressure.METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis using a large contemporaneous population-based mid-life cohort of men and women aged 50-64 years. Recalled body weight at age 20 years was self-reported, and mid-life body weight and office blood pressures were measured in accordance with a detailed protocol.RESULTS: On average, men had gained 14.9 (95% CI 14.6-15.2) kg of weight, and women 14.6 (95% CI 14.4-14.9) kg, between age 20 years and the mid-life examination, corresponding to 0.40 (95% CI 0.39-0.41) kg/year for men and women. Both weight at age 20 years and weight at the mid-life examination were associated with mid-life blood pressures. On average, a 10 kg weight increase between age 20 years and mid-life was associated with 2.2 (95% CI 0.9-3.5) mmHg higher systolic and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5) mmHg higher diastolic mid-life blood pressure in men, and 3.2 (2.5-4.0) mmHg higher systolic and 2.4 (1.9-2.9) mmHg higher diastolic mid-life blood pressure in women. Mid-life weight was more closely associated than weight at age 20 years with mid-life blood pressure. For a given mid-life weight, blood pressure was higher in persons with higher weight gain from age 20 years.CONCLUSION: In sum, weight gain between early adulthood and mid-life was associated with higher mid-life blood pressure. The magnitude of the association indicates a potentially great public health impact of strategies to prevent weight gain throughout adulthood.
  • Bennet, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality in first- and second-generation immigrants to Sweden diagnosed with type 2 diabetes : a 10 year nationwide cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 64:1, s. 95-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Non-Western immigrants to Europe are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. In this nationwide study including incident cases of type 2 diabetes, the aim was to compare all-cause mortality (ACM) and cause-specific mortality (CSM) rates in first- and second-generation immigrants with native Swedes.Methods: People living in Sweden diagnosed with new-onset pharmacologically treated type 2 diabetes between 2006 and 2012 were identified through the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. They were followed until 31 December 2016 for ACM and until 31 December 2012 for CSM. Analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, socioeconomic status, education, treatment and region. Associations were assessed using Cox regression analysis.Results: In total, 138,085 individuals were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2006 and 2012 and fulfilled inclusion criteria. Of these, 102,163 (74.0%) were native Swedes, 28,819 (20.9%) were first-generation immigrants and 7103 (5.1%) were second-generation immigrants with either one or both parents born outside Sweden. First-generation immigrants had lower ACM rate (HR 0.80 [95% CI 0.76, 0.84]) compared with native Swedes. The mortality rates were particularly low in people born in non-Western regions (0.46 [0.42, 0.50]; the Middle East, 0.41 [0.36, 0.47]; Asia, 0.53 [0.43, 0.66]; Africa, 0.47 [0.38, 0.59]; and Latin America, 0.53 [0.42, 0.68]). ACM rates decreased with older age at migration and shorter stay in Sweden. Compared with native Swedes, first-generation immigrants with <= 24 years in Sweden (0.55 [0.51, 0.60]) displayed lower ACM rates than those spending >24 years in Sweden (0.92 [0.87, 0.97]). Second-generation immigrants did not have better survival rates than native Swedes but rather displayed higher ACM rates for people with both parents born abroad (1.28 [1.05, 1.56]).Conclusions/interpretation: In people with type 2 diabetes, the lower mortality rate in first-generation non-Western immigrants compared with native Swedes was reduced over time and was equalised in second-generation immigrants. These findings suggest that acculturation to Western culture may impact ACM and CSM in immigrants with type 2 diabetes but further investigation is needed.
  • Malinovschi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference equations for diffusing capacity in relation to respiratory burden in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Lausanne, Switzerland : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) has recently published international reference values for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Lower limit of normal (LLN), i.e. the 5th percentile, usually defines impaired D-LCO. We examined if the GLI LLN for D-LCO differs from the LLN in a Swedish population of healthy, never-smoking individuals and how any such differences affect identification of subjects with respiratory burden. Spirometry, D-LCO, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and questionnaires were obtained from the first 15 040 participants, aged 50-64 years, of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Both GLI reference values and the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method were used to define the LLN in asymptomatic never-smokers without respiratory disease (n=4903, of which 2329 were women). Both the median and LLN for D-LCO from SCAPIS were above the median and LLN from the GLI (p<0.05). The prevalence of D-LCO GLI LLN but GLI LLN but GLI LLN and >SCAPIS LLN). No differences were found with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. The GLI LLN for D-LCO is lower than the estimated LLN in healthy, never-smoking, middle-aged Swedish adults. Individuals with D-LCO above the GLI LLN but below the SCAPIS LLN had, to a larger extent, an increased respiratory burden. This suggests clinical implications for choosing an adequate LLN for studied populations.
  • Persson, Ann Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Three-Year Follow-Up with the Bone Conduction Implant
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Audiology and Neuro-Otology. - 1421-9700 .- 1420-3030. ; 25:5, s. 263-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The bone conduction implant (BCI) is an active transcutaneous bone conduction device where the transducer has direct contact to the bone, and the skin is intact. Sixteen patients have been implanted with the BCI with a planned follow-up of 5 years. This study reports on hearing, quality of life, and objective measures up to 36 months of follow-up in 10 patients. Method: Repeated measures were performed at fitting and after 1, 3, 6, 12, and 36 months including sound field warble tone thresholds, speech recognition thresholds in quiet, speech recognition score in noise, and speech-to-noise thresholds for 50% correct words with adaptive noise. Three quality of life questionnaires were used to capture the benefit from the intervention, appreciation from different listening situations, and the ability to interact with other people when using the BCI. The results were compared to the unaided situation and a Ponto Pro Power on a soft band. The implant functionality was measured by nasal sound pressure, and the retention force from the audio processor against the skin was measured using a specially designed audio processor and a force gauge. Results: Audiometry and quality of life questionnaires using the BCI or the Ponto Pro Power on a soft band were significantly improved compared to the unaided situation and the results were statistically supported. There was generally no significant difference between the two devices. The nasal sound pressure remained stable over the study period and the force on the skin from the audio processor was 0.71 ± 0.22 N (mean ± 1 SD). Conclusion: The BCI improves the hearing ability for tones and speech perception in quiet and in noise for the indicated patients. The results are stable over a 3-year period, and the patients subjectively report a beneficial experience from using the BCI. The transducer performance and contact to the bone is unchanged over time, and the skin area under the audio processor remains without complications during the 3-year follow-up.
  • Spühler, Jeannette Hiromi, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • A High Performance Computing Framework for Finite Element Simulation of Blood Flow in the Left Ventricle of the Human Heart
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering. - : Springer. - 9783030307042 ; , s. 155-164
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a high performance computing framework for finite element simulation of blood flow in the left ventricle of the human heart. The mathematical model is described together with the discretization method and the parallel implementation in Unicorn which is part of the open source software framework FEniCS-HPC. We show results based on patient-specific data that capture essential features observed with other computational models and imaging techniques, and thus indicate that our framework possesses the potential to provide relevant clinical information for diagnosis and medical treatment. Several other studies have been conducted to simulate the three dimensional blood flow in the left ventricle of the human heart with prescribed wall movement. Our contribution to the field of cardiac research lies in establishing an open source framework modular both in modelling and numerical algorithms. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Desire of Use : A Hierarchical Decomposition of Activities and its Application on Mobility of by Blind and Low-Vision Individuals
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. - : IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 1534-4320. ; 28:5, s. 1146-1156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Blind and low-vision individuals often have severely reduced mobility, affecting their quality of life and associated socioeconomic cost. Despite numerous efforts and great technological progress, the only used primary mobility aids are still white canes and seeing-eye dogs. Furthermore, there is a permeating tendency in the field to ignore knowledge of both mobility and the target group, as well as constantly design new metrics and tests that makes comparisons between solutions markedly more difficult. Method: The Desire of Use model is introduced in an effort to promote a more holistic approach; it should be generalizable for any activity by any user, but is here applied on mobility of blind and low-vision individuals by a proposal and integration of parameters. Results: An embodiment of the model is presented and with it we show why popular mobility metrics of today are insufficient to guide design; what tasks and metrics that should provide better understanding; as well as which fundamental properties determine them and are critical to discuss. Conclusion: Desire of Use has been introduced as a tool and a theoretical framework, and a realization has been proposed. Significance: Desire of Use offers both a structured perspective of pertinent design challenges facing a given solution, as well as a platform from which to compare test results and properties of existing solutions; in for example the field of electronic travel aids it should prove valuable for designing and evaluating new tests and devices.
  • Naeser, Y., et al. (författare)
  • TRIM study protocol - a prospective randomized multicenter Trial to assess the Role of Imaging during follow-up after radical surgery of stage IIB-C and III cutaneous malignant Melanoma
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2407. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is increasing worldwide. In Sweden, over 4600 cases were diagnosed in 2018. The prognosis after radical surgery varies considerably with tumor stage. In recent years, new treatment options have become available for metastatic CMM. Early onset of treatment seems to improve outcome, which suggests that early detection of recurrent disease should be beneficial. Consequently, in several countries imaging is a part of the routine follow-up program after surgery of high risk CMM. However, imaging has drawbacks, including resources required (costs, personnel, equipment) and the radiation exposure. Furthermore, many patients experience anxiety in waiting for the imaging results and investigations of irrelevant findings is another factor that also could cause worry and lead to decreased quality of life. Hence, the impact of imaging in this setting is important to address and no randomized study has previously been conducted. The Swedish national guidelines stipulate follow-up for 3years by clinical examinations only.MethodsThe TRIM study is a prospective randomized multicenter trial evaluating the potential benefit of imaging and blood tests during follow-up after radical surgery for high-risk CMM, compared to clinical examinations only. Primary endpoint is overall survival (OS) at 5years. Secondary endpoints are survival from diagnosis of relapse and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Eligible for inclusion are patients radically operated for CMM stage IIB-C or III with sufficient renal function for iv contrast-enhanced CT and who are expected to be fit for treatment in case of recurrence. The planned number of patients is >1300. Patients are randomized to clinical examinations for 3years +/- whole-body imaging with CT or FDG-PET/CT and laboratory tests including S100B protein and LDH. This academic study is supported by the Swedish Melanoma Study Group.DiscussionThis is the first randomized prospective trial on the potential benefit of imaging as a part of the follow-up scheme after radical surgery for high-risk CMM.ResultsThe first patient was recruited in June 2017 and as of April 2020, almost 500 patients had been included at 19 centers in Sweden.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 03116412. Registered 17 April 2017, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT03116412
  • Andersson, Peter, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Simulation of the response of a segmented High-Purity Germanium detector for gamma emission tomography of nuclear fuel
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: SN Applied Sciences. - : Springer. - 2523-3963 .- 2523-3971. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Irradiation testing of nuclear fuel is routinely performed in nuclear test reactors. For qualification and licensing of Accident Tolerant Fuels or Generation IV reactor fuels, an extensive increase in irradiation testing is foreseen in order to fill the gaps of existing validation data, both in normal operational conditions and in order to identify operational limits.Gamma Emission Tomography (GET) has been demonstrated as a viable technique for studies of the behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel, e.g. measurement of fission gas release and inspection of fuel behavior under Loss-Of-Coolant Accident conditions. In this work, the aim is to improve the technique of GET for irradiated nuclear fuel by developing a detector concept for an improved tomography system that allows for a higher spatial resolution and/or faster interrogation.We present the working principles of a novel concept for gamma emission tomography using a segmented High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The performance of this concept was investigated using the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP. In particular, the data analysis of the proposed detector was evaluated, and the performance, in terms of full energy efficiency and localization failure rate, has been evaluated.We concluded that the segmented HPGe detector has an advantageous performance as compared to the traditional single-channel detector systems. Due to the scattering nature of gamma rays, a trade-off is presented between efficiency and cross-talk; however, the performance is nevertheless a substantial improvement over the currently used single-channel HPGe detector systems.
  • Att skriva med ljus. 13 essäer om litteratur och fotografi
  • 2020
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Fotografins födelse på 1800-talet är en avgörande händelse i de visuella konsternas historia. Det var en medieteknologisk omvälvning som förändrade förutsättningarna också för litterärt skapande. Litteraturens och fotografins fortsatta samverkan kom att sätta djupa spår i fältet för konstnärlig produktion under 1900- och 2000-talen. Några av dess uttryck och effekter diskuteras i denna antologi som rör sig från fotografen Félix Nadars memoarer till filmskaparen Wim Wenders fototexter. Texter av: Mikael van Reis, Johan Gardfors, Kristoffer Noheden, Nils Olsson, Niclas Östlind, Louise Wolthers, Björn Billing, Thomas Hvid Kromann, Unni Langås, Sonia Lagerwall, Mats Jansson, Hans Kristian S. Rustad, Jørgen Bruhn,
  • Bengtsson, Stina, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Media and basic desires : An approach to measuring the mediatization of daily human life
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Communications. - : Mouton de Gruyter. - 0341-2059 .- 1613-4087.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The extended reliance on media can be seen as one indicator of mediatization. But even though we can assume that the pervasive character of digital media essentially changes the way people experience everyday life, we cannot take these experiences for granted. There has recently been a formulation of three tasks for mediatization research; historicity, specificity and measurability, needed to empirically verify mediatization processes across time and space. In this article, we present a tool designed to handle these tasks, by measuring the extent to which people experience that media reach into the deeper layers of daily human life. The tool was tested in an empirical study conducted in Sweden in 2017. The results show that perceived media reliance is played out in relation to three types of basic desires: (1) (re)productive desires, (2) recognition desires, and (3) civic desires, and is socially structured and structuring. We argue this tool, in diachronic analyses, can measure one important aspect of mediatization.
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