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1.
  • Johansson, Börje, et al. (författare)
  • Globalization and distribution of exports
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The regional economics of knowledge and talent : local advantage in a global context. - Edward Elgar Publ.. - 9781848443280
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the 1980s many economists started to use the term globalization as a catchword for an increased interaction between countries in world trade. The literature does not provide a clear definition of globalization. We set up a number of criteria and formulate hypotheses about globalization that we explore for Swedish export flows during the years 1965-2000. Globalization, in this study, is referred to as increases in country diversity, extended transport radii, less effect of distance on trade flows, and the ratio of exports to the importing countries’ incomes. The results from the empirical analysis do not support the hypotheses of increasing trade globalization. It is rather the case that export flows are becoming more internationally regionalized.
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2.
  • Isaev EI, Lichtenstein AI, Vekilov YK, Smirnova EA, Abrikosov IA, Simak SI, Ahuja R, Johansson B, et al. (författare)
  • Ab initio phonon calculations for Ll(2) Ni3Al and B2NiAl
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Solid State Communications. - 0038-1098. ; 129:12, s. 809-814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The phonon spectra and phonon density of states of the Ni3Al and NiAl intermetallic compounds are calculated from first principles using the linear response method in conjunction with ultrasoft pseudopotentials. The calculated phonon dispersion curves are in good agreement with available experimental results from inelastic neutron scattering.
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3.
  • Johansson, Börje, et al. (författare)
  • Internal and External Knowledge – Innovation of Export Varieties
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Firms in local industries maintain their capability to generate innovations by simultaneously exploiting internal and external knowledge resources. The paper introduces the notion variety triplet to distinguish individual export varieties, where a triplet is a unique combination of a firm, a product code and a destination country. For each date the set of variety triplets in each local industry records all remaining past product innovations. In view of this the paper examines how internal and external knowledge of local industries influence the industry’s scope and value of export varieties. The paper contributes to existing knowledge firstly by introducing variables that measure a local industry’s access to external supply of knowledge, divided into local and extra-local supply. Secondly, the paper sheds light on how internal and external knowledge influence the scope of product innovations in local industries, with firm-level data from Sweden. Thirdly, the paper compares the influence of knowledge on the entire set of variety triplets and on a separate set of recently introduced varieties.
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4.
  • Johansson, Börje, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • The Analysis of Location, Colocation and Urbanization Economies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Handbook of Research on Cluster Theory. - Cheltenham : Edward Elgar. - 978 1 845425166 - 978-1-84542-516-6 ; s. 39-66
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper provides an overview and critical assessment of co-location and clustering in space. Basic location conditions include accessibility to customers, input suppliers including knowledge providers, and regional endowments. A distinction is made between slow and fast location adjustments. In a basic model, it is shown how distance sensitivity and scale economies generate self-reinforcing location externalities. Variations of the same model are employed to illuminate how urbanisation economies can stimulate co-location and clustering. One model variant is designed to examine how innovation activities also can be influenced by urbanisation economies. The paper concludes that a set of basic principals form the basis for localisation and urbanisation economies. However, there remains a challenging gap between model predictions and empirical observations.
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5.
  • Lagerkvist, Anna-Lena, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a prospective, population-based study of incidence, recovery, and residual impairment at 18 months of age.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Dev Med Child Neurol. - 1469-8749. ; 52:6, s. 529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), to prospectively follow the recovery process, to assess the functional outcome at 18 months of age, and to find early prognostic indicators. Method Of the 38 749 children born between 1999 and 2001 in western Sweden, 114 (70 males, 44 females) had an OBPP. Ninety-eight children were examined on six occasions at up to 18 months of age. Muscle strength, range of motion, hand preference, and functional abilities were noted, and the severity of the OBPP was classified. Results The incidence of OBPP was 2.9 per 1000 live births, and the incidence of persisting OBPP was 0.46 per 1000. At 3 months of age, the predictive value of regained elbow flexion for complete recovery was 100%, 99% of shoulder external rotation, and 96% of forearm supination. Most of the 18 children with persisting OBPP could perform functional activities but asymmetries were noted. Five children had a mild, 11 had a moderate, and two had a severe impairment. Three had undergone nerve surgery, one with a mild and two with a severe persisting impairment. Interpretation Most children with an OBPP recover completely. Muscle strength at 3 months of age can be used to predict outcome.
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6.
  • Mollberg, Margaretha, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison in obstetric management on infants with transient and persistent obstetric brachial plexus palsy.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of child neurology. - 1708-8283. ; 23:12, s. 1424-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The outcome of obstetric brachial plexus palsy depends on the severity of the lesion of the nerve fibers. The aim of the prospective study is to evaluate if differences in force used in downward traction on the fetal head correlate to the number of nerve roots affected. At final neurological examination at 18 months of age, complete neurological recovery occurred in 80 of 98 children (82%). Downward traction of the fetal head was applied more often and with greater force in the group with persistent damage. There was a significant correlation between the force used to the number of nerve roots affected. The risk of persistent obstetric brachial plexus palsy at age 18 months depended on obstetric management and increased significantly with increasing force used in downward traction of the fetal head.
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7.
  • Nyberg, Jan, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Single-dose irradiation followed by implant insertion in rat bone : An investigative study to find a critical level for osseointegration
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Osseointegration. - Carimate, Italy : Ariesdue. - 2036-412. ; 2:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: Aim No general consensus exists regarding the ideal time to insert implants in bone after irradiation or how the various irradiation doses influence implant success. This study aims at investigating integration of implants in pre-irradiated rat bone and find a critical level doses that cause disturbed osseointegration. Materials and methods Single irradiation doses of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy were given to one leg of adult rats 3 days prior to insertion of screw-shaped implants whereas the other leg served as a non-irradiated control. The follow up was 5 weeks. Bone implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) were measured on undecalcified cut and ground sections in the light microscope. The tissue quality was also examined in the light microscope. Results Doses of 5 and 10 Gy resulted in 25% higher contact values for the irradiated samples compared to non-irradiated controls. The most impaired integration occurred when doses of 20 Gy were given, revealing a 50% difference between the irradiated (25%) and the non irradiated samples (50%). The bone area demonstrated no major quantitative differences albeit the qualitative observations differed substantially being most pronounced in the 20 and 30 Gy irradiated samples. Conclusions The osseointegration was substantially impaired after radiation doses of 20 and 30 Gy. Quantitative data alone are insufficient to describe implant integration in situation like this. Qualitative observations are of utmost importance and require great attention. The importance of judging and describing various grades of tissue damage is complicated but necessary. Based on the results obtained in this study, full scale experiments are now ongoing.
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8.
  • Soldati, P., et al. (författare)
  • Distributed cross-layer coordination of congestion control and resource allocation in S-TDMA wireless networks
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Wireless networks. - 1022-0038. ; 14:6, s. 949-965
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We consider the problem of joint congestion control and resource allocation in spatial-TDMA wireless networks. The design problem is posed as a utility maximization problem subject to link rate constraints which involve both transmission scheduling and power allocation. Starting from the performance limitations of a centralized optimization based on global network information, we proceed systematically in our development of two distributed and transparent protocols that rely on local information only. In the process, we introduce a novel decomposition method for convex optimization, establish its convergence for the utility maximization problem, and demonstrate how it suggests a distributed solution based on TCP/AQM and incremental updates of the transmission schedule. We develop a two-step procedure for finding the schedule updates and suggest two schemes for distributed link scheduling and power control under realistic interference models. Although the final protocols are suboptimal, we isolate and quantify the performance losses incurred by each simplification and demonstrate strong performance in examples.
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