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1.
  • Johansson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Distributed Model Predictive Consensus
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems. ; s. 2438-2444
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we consider the problem of designing a distributed control strategy such that a linear combination of the states of a number of vehicles coincide at a given time. The vehicles are described by linear difference equations and are subject to convex input constraints. It is demonstrated how primal decomposition techniques and incremental subgradient methods allow us to find a solution in which each vehicle performs individual planning of its trajectory and exchanges critical information with neighbors only. We explore various communication, computation, and control structures, and demonstrate the performance of the algorithms by numerical examples.
2.
  • Johansson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • On decentralized negotiation of optimal consensus
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Automatica. - 0005-1098. ; 44:4, s. 1175-1179
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A consensus problem consists of finding a distributed control strategy that brings the state or output of a group of agents to a common value, a consensus point. In this paper, we propose a negotiation algorithm that computes an optimal consensus point for agents modeled as linear control systems subject to convex input constraints and linear state constraints. By primal decomposition and incremental subgradient methods, it is shown that the algorithm can be implemented such that each agent exchanges only a small amount of information per iteration with its neighbors.
3.
  • Johansson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Subgradient methods and consensus algorithms for solving convex optimization problems
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Decision and Control, 2008. CDC 2008. 47th IEEE Conference on. - IEEE. - 978-1-4244-3123-6 ; s. 4185-4190
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we propose a subgradient method for solving coupled optimization problems in a distributed way given restrictions on the communication topology. The iterative procedure maintains local variables at each node and relies on local subgradient updates in combination with a consensus process. The local subgradient steps are applied simultaneously as opposed to the standard sequential or cyclic procedure. We study convergence properties of the proposed scheme using results from consensus theory and approximate subgradient methods. The framework is illustrated on an optimal distributed finite-time rendezvous problem.
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8.
  • Djurfeldt, Mikael, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Brain-scale simulation of the neocortex on the IBM Blue Gene/L  supercomputer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: IBM Journal of Research and Development. - 0018-8646. ; 52:1-2, s. 31-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biologically detailed large-scale models of the brain can now be simulated thanks to increasingly powerful massively parallel supercomputers. We present an overview, for the general technical reader, of a neuronal network model of layers II/III of the neocortex built with biophysical model neurons. These simulations, carried out on an IBM Blue Gene/Le supercomputer, comprise up to 22 million neurons and 11 billion synapses, which makes them the largest simulations of this type ever performed. Such model sizes correspond to the cortex of a small mammal. The SPLIT library, used for these simulations, runs on single-processor as well as massively parallel machines. Performance measurements show good scaling behavior on the Blue Gene/L supercomputer up to 8,192 processors. Several key phenomena seen in the living brain appear as emergent phenomena in the simulations. We discuss the role of this kind of model in neuroscience and note that full-scale models may be necessary to preserve natural dynamics. We also discuss the need for software tools for the specification of models as well as for analysis and visualization of output data. Combining models that range from abstract connectionist type to biophysically detailed will help us unravel the basic principles underlying neocortical function.
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10.
  • Engkvist, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Oxidation of FeCrAl foils at 500-900 degrees C in dry O-2 and O-2 with 40% H2O
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Materials at High Temperatures. - 0960-3409. ; 26:2, s. 199-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High temperature resistant FeCrAl alloys are frequently used in high temperature applications Such as heating elements and metal based catalytic converter bodies. When exposed to high temperatures an adherent, slowly growing, dense aluminium oxide layer forms on the surface, which protects the underlying alloy from severe degradation. The composition, structure and properties of the formed oxide layer are strongly dependent on the alloy composition, temperature and oxidation environment. In this study, the Sandvik 0C404 FeCrAl alloy, in the form of 50 mu m thick foils, was exposed isothermally in the temperature range 500-900 degrees C for 168 hours in dry O-2 and in O-2 with 40 vol.% H2O. The surface morphology, composition and microstructure of the grown oxide scales were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The oxidation process was faster at 900 degrees C than at 500 and 700 degrees C. At 500 degrees C a thin (10-20 nm) mixed oxide of Fe, Cr and Al was formed. Exposure at 700 degrees C resulted ill a similar (40-50 nm) duplex oxide, in both dry O-2 and in O-2 With 40 vol.% H2O. These oxide scales consisted of all inner and an outer relatively pure alumina separated by a Cr-rich band. This type of duplex oxide scale also formed at 900 degrees C with a thin inward growing alpha-Al2O3 at the oxide/metal interface and an outward growing layer outside a Cr-rich band. However, at 900 degrees C the Outward growing layer showed two types of oxide morphologies; a thin smooth base oxide and a much thicker nodular oxide grown on top of substrate ridges. In dry O-2 atmosphere, the main part of this outward growing layer had transformed to alpha-Al2O3. Only in the outer part of the thick oxide nodules, metastable alumina was found. When exposed in the presence of water vapour the main pall of the metastable alumina remained untransformed.
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